تأثیر مؤلفه‌های هویت ایرانی بر قدرت نرم جمهوری اسلامی ایران

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه اصفهان

2 دانشجوی دکتری روابط بین‌الملل دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

قدرت نرم، محصول و برآیند تصویرسازیِ مثبت و کسب اعتبار نزد افکار عمومی جهان است که با به‏کارگیری ابزارهایی چون فرهنگ، پیشینه درخشان، آرمان یا ارزش‌های انسانی به صورت غیرمستقیم بر منافع یا رفتار دیگر کشورها اثر می‎گذارد. بنابراین، قدرت نرم پدیده‏ای اجتماعی و مرتبط با مؤلفه‌های محیطی است که به نسبت سایر ابزارهای سیاست خارجی، بیشترین تأثیرپذیری را از مؤلفه‌های هویت ملی دارد. هدف از انجام این پژوهش، بررسی چگونگی و میزان تأثیر مبانی و اجزای هویت ایرانی بر کارکرد قدرت نرم جمهوری اسلامی ایران و تعیین مؤثرترین آنهاست. در این راستا، نوشتار حاضر با بهره‌گیری از رهیافت «سازه‎گرایی» برای درک رابطه میان هویت ایرانی و قدرت نرم جمهوری اسلامی ایران، روشی توصیفی داشته و مبتنی بر استدلال و تحلیل است. چنانچه یافته‌های تحقیق نشان می‏دهد، در میان مؤلفه‌های هویت ملی، هویت جدید ایرانی که بر اساس شاخص‎ها و معیارهای حقوقی و انسانی و در عین حال اسلامی در قالب الگوی «مردم‏سالاری دینی» تعریف می‏شود، بیشترین تأثیر را بر افزایش قدرت نرم جمهوری اسلامی ایران دارد. بنابراین، تقویت این بخش از هویت ایرانی، اثربخشیِ بیشتر قدرت نرم جمهوری اسلامی ایران را در جهان و به‏ویژه در میان ملل مسلمان به دنبال خواهد داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Aalulbayt Global Information Centre (2008) “Shia Muslims around the World”,
available at: http://www.imamreza.net/eng/imamreza.php?id=3591, accessed:
12 December 2008.
Ahmadi, H. (1383 a [2005 A.D]) “Hoviat va Qomiat dar Irân” (Perisan
Translation of Identity & Ethnicity in Iran), in Aliakbar Alixâni, Hoviat dar
Irân, Tehrân: Pažooheškadeh Motâleât Farhangi Ejtemâee.
____ (1383 b [2005 A.D]) “Hoviate Meli Irâniân dar Qarn-e 21 (Persian
Translation of National Identity of Iranians in the 21st Century), in Hamid
Hâšemi va Akbar Abbâszâdeh, Irân dar Qarn-e 21, Tehrân: Moaseseh Tahqiqât
va Toseeh Oloom-e Ensâni-e Dânešgâh-e Tehrân.
_____ (1386 [2008 A.D]) “Barresi-e Hoviat-e Meli va Ertebât-e ân bâ
Barxi Motaqayerhây-e Ejtemee va Jameeyati ; Motâele Moredi Šahr-e Yâsooj”
( Persian Translation of National Identities Relation with some Social and
Demographic Factors), Majaleh Pažooheši Dânešgâh-e Tehrân, Vol. – (4): 87-
102.
Ašraf, A. (1383 [2005 A.D]) “Bohrân-e Hoviyat-e Meli va Qomi dar Irân”
(Persian Translation of the National and Ethnic Identity Crisis in Iran), in
Hamid Ahmadi, in Iran: Hoviyat, Melliat, Qomiat, Tehrân: Moaseseh Tahqiqât
va Toseeh Oloom-e Ensâni-e Dânešgâh-e Tehrân.
Bahmani Qâjâr, M. ( 1388 [ 2010 A.D]) “Mabani-e Hoviat-e Irani; Iran
Diplomasy” ( Persian Translation of Iranian`s Identity Essentials: Iranian
Diplomacy), available at http://www.irdiplomacy.ir/Modules/ArticlePortal/
Phtml/ArticlePrintVersion.html.php?Lang=fa&TypeId=1&ArticleId=4910
Boroojerdi, M. (1384 [2006 A.D]) “Farhang va Hoviat Irâni dar Farâsooy-e
Marzhâ” (Persian Translation of Iranian Culture and Identity Beyond the
Borders), in Maryam Sanee`, Darâmadi bar Farhang va Hoviat-e Irâni, Tehrân:
Entešârât-e Tamaddon-e Irâni.
Cote, J. E. & Levine, C. G. (2002) Identity Formation, Agency, and Culture: a
Social Psychological Synthesis, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Domett, T. (2005) “Soft Power in Global Politics, Diplomatic Partner as
Transversal Actors”, Australian Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 40 (2)
:289-306.
Dueck, C. (2004) “New Perspectives on American Grand Strategy”,
International Security, Vol. 28 (4): 197-216.
Eftexâri, A. (1387 [2009 A.D]) “Do Čehrey-e Qodrat-e Narm: Qodrat-e
Narm-e Ma`nâ” (Persian Translation of Two Faces of Soft Power; the Meaning

Soft Power), edited by Asqar Eftexari, in Qodrat-e Narm va Sarmâye-e
Ejtemâee, Tehrân: Dânešgâh-e Emâm Sâdeq.
Fayyâzi, S. (1381 [2002 A.D]) “Mardom Sâlâri-e Dini, Goftmân-e Rahbar-e
Enqelab-e Eslâmi” (Persian Translation of Religious Democracy; the Discourse
of Islamic Republic’s Revolution`s Leader), Faslnâmeh Naqd-e Ketâb, Vol. – (
20-21): 40-49.
Gill, B. & Huang, Y. (2006) “Sources and Limits of Chinese Soft Power”,
Survival, Vol. 48 (2):17-36.
Girshman, R. (1388 [2010 A.D]) Irân az Âqâz tâ Eslâm (Persian Translation
of L’Irna des origines a l’Islam), Translated by Mohamad Moe`n, Tehrân :
Etešârât-e Elmi Farhangi.
Hakimzadeh, Sh. (2006) “Iran: A Vast Diaspora Abroad and Millions of
Refugees at Home”, Migration Information Source, available at: http://www.
migrationinformation.org/profiles/display.cfm?ID=424, accessed: 8 April
2008.
Harsij, H., A`zam, M. (1387 [2009 A.D]) “Qodrat-e Narm Afzari-e Irân dar
Dorân-e Siâsat Jomhoori-e Xâtami ( 1376- 84)” ( Persian Translation of the
Soft Power of Iran during Khatami`s Presidency ( 1997- 2006), Faslnâmeh
Siâsat; Majaleh Dâneškadeh Hoqooq va Oloom-e Siâsi, Vol. 38 (4): 299-319.
Islamic Web (2007) “How many Shia are there in the world?” available at:
http://www.islamicweb.com/beliefs/cults/shia_population.htm, accessed: 12
December 2008.
Izadi, H. (1387 [2009 A.D]) “Mabâni-ye Qodrat-e Narm dar Jomhoori-e
Eslâmi-e Irân” (Persian Translation of Soft Power`s Elemants in Islamic
Republic of Iran), Faslnam-e Basij, Vol. 11 (40): 7-30.
Karimiân, S. ( 1387 [ 2009 A.D]) Taxmin-e Tâbe`-e Taqâzây-e Eco-
Tooorizm ; Motâle`y-e Moredi-ye Gilân( Persian Translation of Eco Tourism `s
Demand), M.A Dissertation, Faculty of Economics, University of Isfahan.
Kâzemi, A. ( 1369 [ 1990 A.D]) Naqš-e Qodrat dar Jâme`h va Ravâbet-e
Beinolmelal ( Persian Translation of The Power of Society and International
Relation), Tehrân: Entešârât-e Qomes.
Lazard, G. (1975) “The Rise of the New Persian Language”, in: R. N. Frye,
The Cambridge History of Iran, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Learn Persian Online (2007) “Persian language” available at: http://www.
learn-persian.com/english/Persian_language.php,accessed:3 December 2008.
Madadpour, M. (1381 [2002 A.D]) Didârbini, Marefat Šenâsi-e Bâteni va
Manteqe Ta`vil (Persian Translation of Visitation, Interior Epistemology and
the Logic of Interpretation), Tehrân: Monâdi-e Tarbiat.

Malekiân, M. (1383 [2006 A.D]) “Hoviat-e Esâlat” (Persian Translation of
The Identity of Authenticity), in Alikakbar Alixâni, Hoviat va Bohrân-e Hoviat,
Tehrân: Pažooheškadeh Oloom-e Ensâni va Ejtemâee Jahâd-e Dânešgâhi.
Mirahmadi, M. (1363 [1983]) Din va Dolat dar Asr-e Safaviyeh (Persian
Translation of Religion and Government in Safavid`s Era), Tehrân: Entešârât-e
Amin Kabir.
Mirmohammadi, D. (1383 [2003 A.D]) Gortârhâee darbârey-e Hoviat-e
Melli dar Irân (Persian Translations Speeches of National Identity in Iran),
Tehrân: Moasese Motâleât-e Melli.
Mohammadi, M. ( 1387 [ 2009 A.D]) “Manâbe`h Qodrat–e Narm ;
Sarmây-e Ejtemâee Nezâm-e Jomhoori-e Eslâmi Iran” ( Persian Translation of
the Sources of Soft Power; The Social Capital of the Islamic Republic of Iran),
Faslnâmeh 15 Xordâd, Vol. 5 ( 16): 19-43.
Moini Alamdâri, J. (1383 [2006 A.D]) “ Hoviat, Târix va Ravâyat dar Irân”,
Edited by Hamid Ahmadi, in Irân: Hoviat, Melliat, Qomiat, Tehrân: Moaseseh
Tahqiqât va Tose`h Oloom-e Ensâni.
Mojtahedzâdeh, P. (1383 [2005 A.D]) “Roohiyeh Edâlatxâhi va Jâygâh-e
ân dar Hoviat-e Melli Irâniân” ( Persian Translation of Justicism in National
Iranian Identity), in Dâvood Mir Mohammadi, Goftârhâee darbârey-e Hoviat-e
Melli dar Irân, Tehrân: Moasese Motâleât-e Melli.
Mojtahedzâdeh, P. (1387 [2009 A.D]) Demokrâsy va Hoviat-e Irâni (Persian
Translation of Democracy and Iranian Identity), Tehrân: Kavir.
Mojtahedzâdeh, P. (l385 [2007 A.D]) “Dâdgari; Padideh-ee az Hoviat-e
Irâni” (Persian Translation Looking for Justice; the Phenomenon of Iranian
Identity), Etelâât-e Siâsi- Eqtesâdi, Vol. – ( 223-4): 4-17.
Moširzâdeh, H. (1386 [2009 A.D]) Tahavvole dar Nazariyahây-e Ravâbet-e
Beinolmelal (Persian Translation of the Evolution in Theories International
Relations), Tehrân: Samt.
Mottaqi, A., Kâzemi, A. (1386 [2008 A.D]) “Sâze Engâri, Hoviat, Zabân
va Siâsat-e Xâreji” (Persian Translation of Identity, Language and Foreign
Relations), Faslnâmeh- Siâsat Xâreji, Vol. 37 (4): 209-237.
Muslim Population Worldwide (2007) “World Muslim Population”,
26 April available at:http://www.islamicpopulation.com/world_general.
html,accessed:11December 2008.
Nation Master (2007) “Demographics of Islam”, available at: http://www.
nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Demographics-of-Islam, accessed: 7 December
2008.
____(2008) “Refugees and internally displaced persons” available at: http://

www.nationmaster.com/graph/imm_ref_and_int_dis_per_ref_cou_of_oriinternally-
displaced-persons-country-origin, accessed: 19 October 2008.
Nye, J. S. (2004 c) “Soft Power and American Foreign Policy”, Political
Science Quarterly, Vol. 119 (2): 255-270.
____ (1990) “The Changing Nature of World Power”, Political Science
Quarterly, Vol. 105 (2): 177-192.
____(2002) “Limits of American Power”, Political Science Quarterly, Vol.
117 (4): 545-559.
____ (2004 a) “The Benefits of Soft Power”, until recently the dean of
Harvard’s Kennedy School, 2 August available at:
____ (2004 b) Soft Power: The Means to Success in Politics, New York:
Public Affairs.
____(2005) Soft Power and Higher Education, Harvard: Harvard University
Press. Alsoavailable at:
____(2006) “Transformational Leadership and U. S. Grand Strategy”,
Foreign Affairs, 85 (4),July/August.
Oguzlu, T. (2007) “Soft Power in Turkish Foreign Policy”, Australian
Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 61 (1): 81-97.
Olson, E. T. (2002) “Personal Identity”, in: The Stanford Encyclopedia
of Philosophy, Edward N. Zalta (ed.) available at: http://plato.stanford. Edu/
entries/identity-personal/, accessed: 14 July 2009.
Price, R. & Reus Smit, C. (1998) “Dangerous Liaisons? Critical International
Theory and Constructivism”, European Journal of International Relations, Vol.
4 (3): 259-294,
Qahramânpoor, R. ( 1385 [ 2006 A.D]) “Naqš-e Nahâdhây-e Dini dar
Farâyand-e Takvin-e Hoviat-e Melli dar Irân” ( Persian Translation of the
Religious Institution`s Role in Evolutional Process of National Identity in
Iran), in Dâvood Qaryâq Zandi, Nahâdhây-e Madani va Hoviat dar Irân,
Tehrân: Entešârât-e Tamaddon- Irâni.
Qaraxloo, M. (1384 [2005 A.D]) “Hozeye Joqrâfiâee Farhang va Tamadon”
( Persian Translation of The Geography of Culture and Civilization) , in Maryam
Sane` Jalâl, Darâmadi bar Farhang va Hoviat-e Irâni, Tehrân: Entešârât-e
Tamaddon- Irâni.
Qobâdi, H., Qiâsoddin, M. (1383 [2004 A.D]) “Zarfiathây-e Adabiât-e Fârsi
dar Bâzyâbi-e Hoviat-e Irâni”, Aliakbar Alixâni, Hoviat dar Irân, Tehrân:
Pažooheškadeh Motâleât-e Farhangi va Ejtemâee.
Rajâee, F. (1382 [2002 A.D]) Moškele-h Hoviat-e Irâniân – Emrooz : Ifây-e
Naqš dar Asr-e Yek Tamadon va Čand Farhang ( Persian Translation of The

Problematic of Contemporary Iranians` Identity: Role Playing in the Era of
One Civilization and Many Culture), Tehrân: Našr-e Ney.
Ranjbar, M. ( 1385 [ 2005 A.D]) “Nahâdhây-e Dini va Hoviat dar Irân-e
Qabl va Ba`d az Enqelâb” ( Persian Translation of Religious Institutions and
Identity in Iran; Before and Post Revolution Era), in Nahâdhây-e Madani
va Hoviat dar Irân, Edited By Dâvood Qarâyâq Zandi, Tehrân: Entešârât-e
Tamadon-e Irâni.
Rastegâri Fasâee, M. (1369 [1990 A.D]) 21 Goftâr dar Bâre-ye Šâhnâmye
Ferdosi (Persian Translation of 21 Speeches about Ferdosi`s Shahnameh),
Širâz: Entešârât-e Navid.
Ravâsâni, Š. (1380 [2001 A.D]) Zaminehây-e Hoviat-e Ejtemâee Hoviat-e
Melli ( Persian Translations of the Context of Social and National Identity),
Tehrân: Markaz-e Bâzšenâsi-e Eslâm va Irân.
Recoeur, P. (1383 [2004 A.D]) Zamân va Hekâyat (Persian Translation of
Time and Narrative), Translated by Mahšid Nonahâli, Tehrân: Gâm-e No.
Riâni, J. (1379 [2000 A.D]) Sanješ-e Hoviat-e Melli dar Beyn-e Dâneš
Âmoozân-e Tehrâni (Persian Translation of Evaluation of National Identity
among Tehrani Students), M.A. Dissertation, Tehran: Moâvenat-e Farhangi
Jahâd-e Dânešgâhi.
Ruggie, J. G. (1998) Constructing the World Polity: Essays on International
Institutionalization, London and New York: Routledge.
Sâqebfar, M. (1383 [2005 A.D]) “ Irân-e Bâstân va Hoviat-e Irâni” ( Persian
Translation of The Ancient Iran and The Iranian Identity), Hamid Ahmadi,
Irân, Hoviat, Melliat, Qomiat, Tehrân: Moaseseh Tahqiqât va Tose`h Ollim-e
Ensâni.
Schams, M. (2006), “Persisch-Deutsch Übersetzer / Dolmetscher in Berlin”,
Iranica Institute, available at: http://www.iranica. de/, accessed: 2 December
2008.
Šeixâvandi, D. (1380 [2001 A.D]) Nâsyoonâlism va Hoviat-e Irâni (Persian
Translation of Nationalism and Iranian Identity), Tehrân: Markaz-e Bâzšenâsi-e
Eslâm va Irân.
Smith, P. H. (2007) “The Hard Road Back to Soft Power”, Georgetown
Journal of International Affairs, Vol.- (-):113-121.
Smith, S. (2000) “Wendt’s World”, Review of International Studies, Vol. 26
(1): 151-163.
Šorây-e Âli-e Enqelâb-e Farhangi ( 1387 [ 2009 ]) “Sanad-e Moalefehây-e
Hoviat-e Irâniân” ( Persian Translation of The Documents of Iranian`s Identity
Factors), available at http://eccc.ir/Eccc/4/871227100622.jsp

Vakili, Š. (1388 [ 2010 A.D]) “Jame`h Šenâsi-e Târixi Hoviat-e Irâni,
Jame`h-ye Irân” ( Persian Translation of Hisotrical Sociology of Iranian
Identity, The Iranian Society), available at http://www.sociologyofiran.com/
index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=769&Itemid=54
Wendt, A. (1999), Social Theory of International Politics, Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Wendt, A. (1998), “On Constitution and Causation in International
Relations”, Review of International Studies, Vol. 24 (5): 101-118.
Xabargozâri Fârs ( 18th Âbân 1388 [ November 9th 2009]) “Tafavothay-e
Mardon Sâlâri-e Dini ba Liberal Demokrâsy” ( Persian Translation of The
Differences of Religious Democracy with Liberal Democracy), available at
http://www.farsnews.net/newstext.php?nn=8808180432
Xorâsâni, R. (1387 [2009 A.D]) “Jâygâh va Naqš-e Qodrat-e Farhangi dar
Siâsat-e Xâreji va Ta`sir-e ân bar Ravand-e Tahavvolat-e Jahân” ( Persian
Translation of The Cultural Power`s Role on Foreign Policy and its Impact on
World Evolution`s Process), Faslnâm-h Oloom-e Siâsi, Vol. 11 (4): 47-72.