Document Type : Scientific Research Manuscript


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Tourism, Semnan University

2 M.A. Student of Tourism Development Planning, Semnan University, (Correspondent Author)


Today, Tourism is more than an economic activity and as a world and social phenomenon has certain complexities which are the result of displacement of people from different cultures and their communicationse and interactions in peace time. In this regard, understanding cultural differences is an essential factor in developing a successful tourism industry. This study aimed to examine cross-cultural differences in tourism and the ways the local community encounters with them. This was a qualitative study. Research participants included twelve persons from local people in Ghara dagh (Arasbaran) Area who were selected by purposeful sampling. This study indicated that determinants of tourist– local community contact, the role of culture in tourism, types of intercultural encounters, the cultural differences between tourists and local community, the cultural differences problems of tourist–local community contact, the impact of cultural differences on the local community and the style of encounter of local community with the tourists' cultural differences are seven main themes related to cross-cultural differences in tourism and 26 sideshows were infulencial factors on main issues.


΄Ali Ahmadi, ΄A. R., & Sa΄id Nahāyi, V. (1386 [2007 A.D]). Tusifi jāme΄ az raveš hā-ye tahqiq. Tehrān: Tulid-e Dāneš.
Adib Hāj Bāqeri, M. (1385 [2006 A.D]). Raveš-e tahqiq-e Gerānded te΄ori. Tehrān: Entešārāt-e Bošri(ā).
Alvāni, S. M., & Piruzbaxt, M. (1385 [2006 A.D]). Farāyand-e modiriyat-e jahāngardi. Tehrān: Daftar-e Pažuheš  hā-ye Farhangi.
Apostolopoulos, Y. (1388 [2009 A.D]). Jāme΄eh šenāsi-e gardešgari. (Persian translation of Sociology of tourism). translated by: Šafi΄i, B. Rašt: Entešārāt-e Vārasteh.
Argyle, M. (1986). Rules for social relationships in four cultures. Australian Journal of Psychology, 38 (3), 309-318.‏
 Argyle, M., Furnham, A. and Graham, J. (1981). Social Situations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Barre, H. (1996). Culture, tourism, development: crucial issues for the XXIst century. Paris: UNESCO.
Bochner, S. (1982). Cultures in contact: studies in cross-cultural interaction. Oxford; New York: Pergamon Press.
Boniface, P. (1380 [2001 A.D]). Modiriyat-e gardešgari-e farhangi. (Persian translation of Managing quality cultural tourism). translated by: ΄Abdolah Zādeh, M. Tehrān: Daftar-e Pažuheš hā-ye Farhangi.
Brunt, P., & Courtney, P. (1999). Host perceptions of sociocultural impacts. Annals of tourism Research, 26 (3), 493-515.
Burns, P. (1385 [2006 A.D]). Darāmadi bar mardom šenāsi-e gardešgari (Persian translation of An introduction to tourism and anthropology). translated by: Hušmandi, H. Tehrān: Teyf-negār.
Cohen, B. (1380 [2001 A.D]). Mabāni-ye jāme'eh šenāsi. (Persian translation of Introduction to sociology). translated by: Tavasoli, Gh. 'A., & Fāzel, R. Tehrān: Entešārāt-e Samt.
Creswell, J.W. (2005). Educational research: planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, N.J: PrenticeHall.
Cronen, V. and Shuter, R. (1983). Forming intercultural bonds; Intercultural Communication Theory: Current Perspectives. Canada: Sage Publications.
Doswell, R. (1387 [2008 A.D]). Modiriyat-e jahāngardi. (Persian translation of Tourism: how effective management makes the diffrence).translated by: ΄Erābi, S. M., & Izadi, D. Tehrān: Daftar-e Pažuheš hā-ye Farhangi.
Elliott, J. (1997). Tourism: politics and public sector management. New York: Psychology Press.
Gayle, S. (1997). Workplace purpose and meaning as perceived by information technology proposals: A phenomenological study. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C.
Gee, Ch. Y. (1388 [2009 A.D]). Jahāngardi dar čašm andāz-e jāme΄. (Persian translation of International tourism: a global perspective). translated by: Pārsā΄iyān, ΄A., & ΄Erābi, S. M. Tehrān: Daftar-e Pažuheš hā-ye Farhangi.
Hall, E. T. (1966). The Hidden dimension. New York: Doubleday and Fawcett.
Hall, E. T. (1973). The silent language. New York: Doubleday and Fawcett Company, Anchor Press.
Hall, E.T. & Hall, M.R. (1987). Hidden differences: Doing business with the Japanese. New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday.
Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills: Sage publications.
Homāyun. M. H. (1380 [2001 A.D]). Payāmad hā-ye farhangi-e tose΄eh-ye jahāngardi. Hoquq-e Eslāmi, 5, 64-77.
Kang, D. S., & Mastin, T. (2008). How cultural difference affects international tourism public relations websites: A comparative analysis using Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Public relations review, 34 (1), 54-56.
Karubi, M. (1382 [2003 A.D]). Farhang-e gardešgari. Motāle΄āt-e Gardešgari, 2, 21-48.
Kāzemi, M. (1382 [2003 A.D]). Ta΄sirāt-e tose΄eh-ye jahāngardi bar javāme΄.  Motāle΄āt-e Gardešgari, 1, 39-50.
Kāzemi, M. (1387 [2008 A.D]). Modiriyat-e gardešgari. Tehrān: Entešārāt-e Samt.
Kluckhohn, F.R. & Strodtbeck, F.L. (1961). Variations in value orientations. New York: Harper and Row.
Lee, G., & Lee, C. K. (2009). Cross-cultural comparison of the image of Guam perceived by Korean and Japanese leisure travelers: Importance–performance analysis. Tourism Management, 30 (6), 922-931.
Maznevski, M. L. (1994). Synergy and performance in multi-cultural teams. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Western Ontario, Canada.
OECD (2009). The Impact of culture on tourism. Paris: OECD.
Pāpoli Yazdi, M. H., & Saqāyi, M. (1385 [2006 A.D]). Gardešgari (māhiyat va mafāhim). Tehrān: Entešārāt-e Samt.
Parsons, T. (1951). The social system. Glencoe, Ill: Free Press.
Pearce, P. (1994). Tourist-resident impacts: examples, explanations and emerging solutions. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
Pearce, P., Kim, E. & Lussa, S. (1998). Facilitating tourist-host social interaction. In Law, E., Faulkner, B. and Moscardo, G. (eds.), Embracing and Managing Change in Tourism. London: Routledge, 347-364.
 Reaves, B.B. (2008). Entrepreneurial success: A phenomenological study of the characteristics of successful female entrepreneurs. Unpublished Dissertation, University of Phoenix.
Reisinger, Y., & Turner, L. (1392 [2013 A.D]). Raftār-e miyān farhangi dar gardešgari; mafāhim va tahlil hā. (Persian translation of Cross-cultural behaviour in tourism: concepts and analysis). translated by: Purfaraj, A., & Seyedmusavi, S., & Dehestāni, M. Tehrān: Našr-e Samirā.
Reisinger, Y., & Turner, L. (1997). Cross-cultural differences in tourism: Indonesian tourists in Australia. Tourism Management, 18 (3), 139-147.‏
Šams, M., & Amini, N. (1388 [2009 A.D]). Arzyābi-e šāxes-e farhang-e irāni va ta΄sir-e ān dar tose΄eh-ye gardešgari. Joghrāfiyā-ye Ensāni, 4, 82-93.
Sandelowski, M. (1986). The problem of rigor in qualitative research. Advances in Nursing Science, 8 (3), 27-37.‏
Schein, E.H. (1992). Organisational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Sharpley, R. (2014). Host perceptions of tourism: A review of the research. Tourism Management, 42, 37-49.‏
Stewart, R. A. (1971). Cross-cultural personality research and basic cultural dimensions through factor analysis. Personality II, (1), 45-72.‏
Streubert, H. J. & Carpenter, D. R. (1999). Qualitative research in nursing: Advancing the humanistic imperative (2nd ed). Philadelphia: Lippincott.Williams & Wilkins.
Tāj Zādeh Namin, A. (1383 [2004 A.D]). Negareši bar jāygāh-e farhang va zavābet-e axlāqi dar gardešgari. Motāle΄āt-e gardešgari, 5, 1-26.
Taqdisi, A., & Taqvāyi, M., & Piri, S. (1391 [2012 A.D]). Tahlili bar negareš-e jāme΄eh-ye mizbān beh asarāt-e ejtemā΄i- farhangi-e gardešgari-e Šahrestān-e Dālāhu. Barnāmeh rizi-e fazāyi, 2 (1), 121-140.
Tribe, J. (1997). Corporate strategy for tourism. London: International Thomson Business Press.
Trompenaars, F. & Hampden-Turner, C. (2002). Riding the waves of culture: Understanding cultural diversity in business. London: Nicholas BrealeyPublishing.   
Trompenaars, F. (1984). The organisation of meaning and the meaning of organisation a comparative study on the conceptions and organisational structure in different cultures. PhD thesis, University of Pennsylvania.
Trompenaars, F. (1993). Riding the waves of culture: Understanding cultural diversity in business. London: Brealey.
Turner, C. H., & Trompenaars, A. (1993). The seven cultures of capitalism: Value systems for creating wealth in the United States, Japan, Germany, France, Britain, Sweden, and the Netherlands. New York: Doubleday Business.
Zarghām, H. (1376 [1997 A.D]). Rāhkār hā-yi barāye tose΄eh-ye jahāngardi dar Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-e Irān. Majmu΄eh maqālāt-e jahāngardi va Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-e Irān. (1st vol.), 299-404.
Zhang, J., Inbakaran, R., & Jackson, M. (2006). Understanding community attitudes towards tourism and hosteguest interaction in the urban-rural border region. Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment, 8 (2), 182-204.