Document Type : Scientific Research Manuscript


Assistant Professor in Political Tought., Institute for Social and Cultural Studies


To live in a non-excellent city, is a problematic situation for excellent men. But, which style of life would be the best style for excellent men who live in non-excellent cities? The Moslem Philosophers have different approaches to this question. Among them, al-Farabi, as the founder of Islamic philosophy, advised three choices: going out of the non-excellent cities to an excellent city, living as a stranger in a non-excellent city, or, preferring death instead of life. Avicenna, recommends virtues men to build their cities in the periphery of the non-excellent city, far away from the center. Against him, Avempace's theory focuses on the idea that virtues men’s happiness should be realized in non-excellent cities. Ibn Tufayl (Abu Baser) in his tale, Hayy Ibn Yaqdhan (Alive, Son of Awake) man is a lost being that tries to find him“self” by a particular kind of knowledge which leads him to excellent situation in society. Comparing these theories reveals that relation between “individual” and “society” is problematic and complicated. In fact, compliance with conventions, rules, or laws of non-excellent cities is in the center of these theories.