Document Type : Scientific Research Manuscript


1 Assistant Professor, Institute for Social and Cultural Studies

2 Faculty Member of Psychology Department, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch


The purpose of the present research was to study socio-cultural and psychological effective factors contributing to suicide, as well as comparing these factors among Iranian and Tajik women who attempted suicide. The present study was a qualitative study in which 60 patients (30 from each country) participated. Each of these participants went through an in-depth interview. Results of the study showed that the most important factors considering suicide attempt in both groups were as follows: domestic violence, cultural induction, family cold relations, forced marriages, too much responsibility, lack of privacy, polygamy, irrational biases and lack of communication between generations. Tajik men, despite the law of monogamy, prefer polygamy and marry more than one woman. Tajik people also, prohibit burring body of a woman who is dead after a suicide atempt in Muslim cemetery.


Aliverdi, A. (1373 [1994 A.D]). Barresi-e tatbiqi-e mizān-e xudkoši. (Pāyān nāmeh-ye kāršenāsi-e aršad). Tehrān: Dānešgāh-e Tarbiat Modares.
Asadbeygi, H. (1390 [2011 A.D]). Xudkoši dar Irān va jahān. Tehrān: Daftar-e Omur-e Āsib didegān, Retrieved from:
Baune, B., & Hay, P. (2006). Suicide rates & antidepressant prescribing: A casual or causal relationship. PLOS medicine, 3(6), 220.
Baxtiār Nežād, P. (1378 [1999 A.D]). Zanān-e xudsuxteh-ye Ilām va Xuzestān. Tehrān: Entešārāt-e Āgāh.
Blumenthal, S., & Kupfer, D. (1990). Suicide over the life cycle: Risk factors, assessment, & treatment of suicidal patients. Wash., DC: Amer. Psych.Press.
Brandt, R. (1975). The morality & rationality of suicide. in A Handbook for the Study of Suicide, S. Perlin (ed.) Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brown, P. (2001).Choosing to die: A growing epidemic among the young. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 79 (12), 1175-1177.
Campbell, R., & Collinson, D. (1988). Ending lives. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Camus, A. (1955). The myth of sisyphus. London: Hamish Hamilton.
Canetto, S. S. & Lester .D. (1995). Women & suicidal behavior. New York, NY: Springer; 1995.
Carstairs, G. M. (1973). Foreword, in E. Stengel, Suicide & Attempted Suicide. Harmondsworth: Penguin (revised edition with revisions).
Cholbi, M. (2002). Suicide intervention & non-ideal Kantian theory. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 19: 245–259.
Cupples, L. A., Heeren, T., Schatzkin, A., & Colton, T. (1984). Multiple testing of hypotheses in comparing two groups. Annals of Internal Medicine, 100 (1), 122-129.
Darwin, C. (2009). The origin of species by means of natural selection or, the preservation of favored races in the struggle for life. W. F. Bynum (Ed.). AL Burt.
Dolard, J. (1939). Frustration & aggression. new haven, 27 & 76.
Durkheim E. (1378 [1999 A.D]). Xudkoši, janbeh hā-ye jāme’eh šenāxti. (Persian translation of  Suicide, etude de Sociologie), translated by: Sālār Zādeh Amiri, N. Tehrān: Entešārāt-e Dānešgāh-e ‘Alāmeh Tabātabā’i.
Durkheim, É. (1952). Suicide: A study in sociology. Translated by John A. Spaulding and George Simpson. 1952. Reprint, New York: Free Press, 1989.
Ebrahimi, A. E.; Moulavi, H.; Mousavi, S. G.; BornaManesh, A. & Yaghoubi, M. (2007). Psychometric properties & factor structure of general health questionnaire 28 (GHQ-28) In Iranian psychiatric patients. Journal of Research in Behavioural Sciences. 5 (1), 5-12.
Fernquist, R. M. & Cutright, P. (1998). Social integration & age- standardized suicide rate in 21 developed countries, 1955-1989. Social Science Research, 27 (2), 109-127.
Flick, U. (1387 [2008 A.D]). Darāmadi bar tahqiq-e keyfi. (Persian translation of An introduction to qualitative, research), translated by: Jalili, H. Tehrān: Našr-e Ney.
From, E. (1385 [2006 A.D]). Serešt-e rāstin-e ensān. (Persian translation of Marx's concept of man), translated by: Jāvid, F. Tehrān: Našr-e Axtarān.
Fulādi, ‘A. (1381 [2002 A.D]). Esterāteži hā va barnāmeh hā-ye pišgiri az xudkoši. Tehrān: Najm Andiš.
Glasser, W., & Breggin, P.  (2000). Counseling with choice theory:The  new reality therapy. New York: Harper Collins
Graber, G.C. (1981). The rationality of suicide in, Suicide & euthanasia: The rights of Personhood. S. Wallace & A. Eser (eds.), 51–65, Knoxville:U.Tennessee Press.
Haarr, R. N. (2010). Suicidality among battered women in Tajikistan.Violence Against Women,16(7), 764-788.
Harris, C. (2004). Control & subversion: Gender relations in Tajikistan. Londan: Pluto Press.
Hātami, M. R. & Mazhabi, S. (1390 [2011 A.D]). Resāneh va negareš-e zanān beh huviat-e jensi-e xud. Tahqiqāt-e Farhangi ـ e Iran, 4(2), 185-209
Hewitt, J. (2010). Rational suicide: Philosophical perspectives on schizophrenia. Medicine, Health Care & Philosophy,13(1), 25-31.
Karen, S. A. (1992). Always leading our men in service & sacrifice: Amy jacques garvey, feminist black nationalist. Gender & Society, 6, 346-375.
Kupfer, J. (1990). Suicide: Its nature & moral evaluation. Journal of Value Inquiry, 24, 67-81.
Latypov, A. (2009). Revisiting female suicide in muslim Tajikistan: Religious, cultural & public health perspectives. In China & Eurasia Forum Quarterly, 7 (3), 31-61.
Lebacqz, K. & Engelhardt, H.T.(1980). Suicide, in death, dying & euthanasia. D.J.Horan & D. Mall (eds.). Frederick, Md.: Aletheia.
Lieberman, L. (2003). Leaving you: The cultural meaning of suicide. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.
Lowry, M. E. (1984). Major depression; prevention & treatment. St.Louis: Warren Green inc
Maris, D.W. (1991). A developmental perspective of suicide. In A. A York: Plenum Leenaars (Ed.), Life span perspectives of suicide: Time-lines in the suicide process. 25−38. New York Plenum.
Maris, R.W. (1979). Social forces in urban suicide. Home wood,IL, dorsey Press, 159-180
Marozzi, M. (2014). Multivariate tests based on interpoint distances with application to magnetice resonance imaging. Statistical Methods in Medical Research. Doi: 10.1177/0962280214529104.
McManners, J. (1981). Death & the enlightenment: Changing attitudes to death among christians & unbelievers in eighteenth-century France. Oxford University Press
Milner, A., McClure, R., & De Leo, D. (2012). Globalization & suicide: An ecological study across five regions of the world. Archives of Suicide Research, 16 (3), 238-249.
Mishara, B. L., & Weisstub, D. N. (2005). Ethical & legal issues in suicide research. International  Journal of Law & Psychiatry, 28(1), 23-41.
Mohamad Pur, A. (1383[2004 A.D]). Xudkoši, padideh-i ejtemā’i va čandbo’di. In xudkoši, maqālāt-e hamāyeš-e meli-e āsib hā-ye ejtemā’i dar Irān. (4th vol.). Tehrān: Našr-e Ᾱgah.
Mohseni, A. (1372 [1993 A.D]). Barresi-e ‘elal va ‘avāmel-e mu’aser bar afzāyeš-e nerx-e xudkoši dar ostān-e Ilām. Tehrān: Dānešgāh-e Tehrān.
Mohseni, M. (1366 [1987 A.D]). Enherāfāt-e ejtemā’i: Angizeh hā va ‘elal-e xudkoši. Tehrān: Našr-e Marvi.
Mošir Zādeh, H. (1382 [2003 A.D]). Tārix-e du qarn-e feminism. (1st vol.). Tehrān: Našr va Pažuheš-e Širāzeh.
Mundt, A.; Kliewe, T.; Yayla, S.; Ignatyev, Y.; Busch, M. A.; Heimann, H., Heinz A., Rapp MA., Schouler-Ocak M., Ströhle A., & Aichberger, M. C. (2012). Social characteristics of psychological distress in disadvantaged areas of Berlin. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 60 (1), 75-82, doi: 10.1177/0020764012464017.
Newman, I., & Benz, C. R. (1998). Qualitative-quantitative research methodology: Exploring the interactive continuum. SIU Press.
Papalia, d. E &  Olds, S.W. (1988). Psychology. NewYork: Mc Graw-Hill book company.
Pedahzur, A., & Perliger, A. (2006). The changing nature of suicide attacks: A social network perspective. Social Forces, 84 (4), 1987-2008.
Porterfield, A. L. (1968)."The problem of suicide". in Suicide, ed. Jack P. Gibbs. New York: Harper & Row, 51
Rafi’ pur, F. (1380 [2001 A.D]). Tuse’eh va tazād. (5th ed.). Tehrān: Šerkat-e  Sahāmi-e Entešār.
Ritzer, G. (1988). Sociological theory. McGraw ـHill Publishing Company.
Runeson, B. (1989). Mental disorder in youth suicide. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 79(5), 490-497.
Sediq, R. (1381 [2002 A.D]). Ᾱsib šenāsi-e ejtemā’i, jāme’eh šenāsi-e enherāfāt. Tehrān: Entešārāt-e Dānešgāh-e Tehrān.
Sheikhazadi, A., Saberi Anari, S. H. & Ghadyani, M. H. (2010). Nonfire carbon monoxide-related deaths: A survey in Tehran, Iran (2002-2006). American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 31(4), 359-363 Retreived from:
Shneidman, E. S. (1383 [2004 A.D]). Ravānšenāsi-e xudkoši (zehn-e xudkoš. gerā). (Persian translation of Understanding the suicidal mind), translated by: Firuzbaxt, M. Tehrān: Rasā.
Shneidman, E. S. (1987). A psychological approach to suicide. In American Psychological Association Convention, Aug, 1986, Washington, DC, US; This chapter is based upon one of the 1986 Master Lectures that were presented at the aforementioned convention. American Psychological Association.
Stack, S. (1982). Suicide: A decade review of the sociological literature. Deviant Behaviour 4, 41–66.
Stack, S., Wasserman, I., & Kposowa, A. (1994). The effects of religion and feminism on suicide ideology: An analysis of national survey data. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 110-121.
Stoff, D.M. & Mann, J.J. (1997). The neurobiology of suicide: From the bench to the clinic. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 836
Wertheimer. A. (2004). A special scar: The experiences of people bereaved by suicide. Routledge.
Wetzel, J.w. (1984). Clinical handbook of depression. New York: Gardner press
Krug E; Dahlberg L.L: Mercy J.A: Zwi A.B: Lozano R., eds. (2002). World report on Violence and health Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Yazd X(v)āsti, G., Qāsemi, V., & Vahidā, F. (1390 [2011 A.D]). Rābeteh-ye tamās hā-ye beyn-e farhangi va huš-e farhangi: Tahlil-e nazari va tajrobi. Tahqiqāt-e Farhangi-e Irān, 4 (2), 133-162
 Zāre’ Šāh Ᾱbādi, A., & Ebrāhim Ᾱbādi, M. (1390 [2011 A.D]). Baresi-e ‘avāmel-e ejtemā’i-e mortabet bā bohrān-e huviat-e farhangi dar beyn-e dāneš āmuzān-e dabirestāni-e Tabriz. Tahqiqāt-e Farhangi-e Irān, 4(4), 207-228.
Zumbo, B.; Gadermann, A. & Zeisser, C. (2007). Ordinal versions of coefficient alpha & theta for likert scale. The Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, 6 (1), 21-29