Document Type : Scientific Research Manuscript


1 PhD in Social Communication Sciences, Facult Member of Department of Culture and Communication, Jihad Daneshgahi, Allameh Tabatabaei University Branch

2 Associate Porofessor, Faculty of Communication Sciences, Allameh Tabatabaei University


The movement towards the goals of "Vision plan 1404" needs the perception of the requirements to prepare plans for achieving the favorite objectives of development. With the advent of the information age, the rules of development policy-making strongly have changed in the world and also unique opportunities areprovided by variables of communications for countries that have been in early stages of development. Based on this, considering the communications in macro-level and in the political, social, economic and cultural development plans is important and necessary. This requires a review and pathology of previous plans and evaluation of their strengths and weaknesses for preparing of more comprehensive future plans. Themain question of this study is: what is the approach of development plans to communications section after Islamic revolution?  Which aspects of communications are considered, and what aspects are ignored?
 This study analyzes five development plans after the revolution, by using of qualitative content analysis. Results show that in all five-year plans the focus was on hardware and quantitative dimensions of communication development and media, but qualitative and content aspects, such as the right to universal access to information, freedom to obtain and disseminate information within the constitution, freedom of speech and press, a move towards the information society and knowledge-based, also other dimensions of communications such as human, traditional and social communication has been less considered. In the fourth development plan that is "knowledge" – centered, new fields of communications has been studied comprehensively in comparison to other plans. According to these approaches and new scientific and experimental perspectives, this paper suggests further engagement in communications necessity for development policy-making.


Main Subjects

Azkiā, M., & Ghafāri, Gh. R. (1377 [1998 A.D]). Jāme'eh šenāsi-e tuse'eh. Tehrān: Kalameh.
Bostock, F., & Jones, G. (1395 [2016 A.D]). Barnāmeh rizi va qodrat dar Irān (Abol-Hassan Ebtehāj va tuse'eh-ye eqtesādi-e taht-e solteh-ye šāh). Tehran: Kavir.
Dehqān Pišeh, E., & Esmā'ili, R. (1391 [2012 A.D]). Arzyābi-e mosavabāt-e dulat darbāreh-ye sinamā (1368- 1388). Tahqiqāt-e Farhangi-e Irān, 5(1), 115-132.
Ebrāhim Ᾱbādi, H. (1392 [2013 A.D]). Ta'amoli bar nesbat-e miān-e fanāvari hā-ye etelā'āti bā taghyirāt dar farhang va monāsebāt-e ejtemā'i. Tahqiqāt-e Farhangi-e Irān. 6 (4), 83-106.
Forqāni, M. M. (1380 [2001 A.D]). Ertebātāt va tuse'eh; čehār daheh nazarieh pardāzi. Resāneh, 12(2), 47-53.
Forqāni, M. M. (1393 [2014 A.D]). Majmu'eh maqālāt-e Ruznāmeh negāri, ertebātāt va jāme'eh. Tehrān: Etelā'āt.
Hancok, A. (1981). Communication Planning for Development: an Operational Framework, UNESCO.
Hsieh, H.F; Shannon, S.E. (2005) .Three Approaches to Content Analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15(9), 1277-1288.
Imān, M. T., & Nušādi, M. R. (1390 [2011 A.D]). Tahlil-e mohtavā-ye keyfi. Pažuheš, 3(2), 15-44.
Karimiān, Z., & Ahmadvand, 'A. M. (1391 [2012 A.D]). Jāme'eh-ye etelā'āti, huviat-e farhangi va resālat-e dānšgāh hā. Tahqiqāt-e Farhangi-e Irān, 5(3), 47-76.
‎ Lee john A. R. (1356 [1977 A.D]). Beh su-ye siāsat hā-ye ertebāti-e vāqe' bināneh. (Persian translation of Towards Realistic Communication). translated by: Jahāndāri, X. S. N
McQuail, Denis (1983). McQuail's Mass Communication Theory. London: Sage Publication.
Mo'tamed Nežād, K. (1371 [1992 A.D]). Ertebātāt-e tuse'eh va tuse'eh-ye ertebātāt dar Irān: naqš-e ertebātāt dar pišbord-e barnāmeh hā-ye tuse'eh-ye meli va ahamiat-e barnāmeh rizi barāye tuse'eh-ye ertebāti. Tehrān: Dānešgāh-e 'Alāmeh Tabātabā'i.
Mo'tamed Nežād, K. (1371 [1992 A.D]). Vasāel-e ertebāt-e Jam'i. Tehrān: Dānešgāh-e 'Alāmeh Tabātabā'i.
Mo'tamed Nežād, K. (1380 [2001 A.D]). Seyri dar tahavol-e motāle'āt-e ertebātāti (in Mahdi Moseniān Rād). (4th ed.). Tehrān: Soruš.
Mo'tamed Nežād, K. (1383 [2004 A.D]). Yunesko (UNESCO) va siāsatgozāri-e meli-e ertebātāt dar kešvar hā-ye dar hāl-e tuse'eh. Resāneh, 15(2), 5-38.
Mowlana, H. (1387 [2008 A.D]). Gozar az nugerāyi. (Persian translation of The passing of modernity:communication and the transformation of society). Translated by: Šokrxāh, Y. Tehrān: Daftar-e Motāle'āt va Barnāmeh rizi-e Resāneh hā.
Sāzmān-e Barnāmeh va Budjeh. (1369 [1990 A.D]). Qānun-e barnāmeh-ye aval-e tuse'eh-ye eqtesādi, ejtemā'i va farhangi-e Jomhuri-e Eslāmi-e Irān (1370- 1374).
Sāzmān-e Barnāmeh va Budjeh. (1373 [1994 A.D]). Qānun-e barnāmeh-ye duom-e tuse'eh-ye eqtesādi, ejtemā'i va farhangi-e Jomhuri-e Eslāmi-e Irān (1374- 1378).
Sāzmān-e Barnāmeh va Budjeh. (1379 [2000 A.D]). Qānun-e barnāmeh-ye sevom-e tuse'eh-ye eqtesādi, ejtemā'i va farhangi-e Jomhuri-e Eslāmi-e Irān (1379- 1383).
Sāzmān-e Barnāmeh va Budjeh. (1383 [2004 A.D]). Qānun-e barnāmeh-ye čehārom-e tuse'eh-ye eqtesādi- ejtemā'i va farhangi-e Jomhuri-e Eslāmi-e Irān (1384- 1388).
Sāzmān-e Barnāmeh va Budjeh. (1389 [2010 A.D]). Qānun-e barnāmeh-ye panjom-e tuse'eh-ye eqtesādi- ejtemā'i va farhangi-e Jomhuri-e Eslāmi-e Irān (1390- 1394).
Servaes, J. (1989). Shifts in Development and Communication Theory with a Brief Discussion of its Communication Policy and Planning Consequences. Progress in Communication Vciences. 209(59), 51-58.
Servaes, J. (1991). Toward a New Perspective for Communication and Development. Communication in Development. 52(1).
Servaes, J.; Malikhao, P. (2005). Participatory Communication: the New Paradigm? In O. Hemer and T. Tufte (eds.), Media and Glocal Change: Rethinking Communication for Development. Goteborg: Nordicom and Buenos Aires: Clacso. Pp.91-103.
‎Servas, J. (1384 [2005 A.D]). Beh su-ye ruykard-e jadid-e ertebātāt va tuse'eh, (Persian translation of Shifts in development and communication Theory with a Brief Discussion commanication policy and planning cosequences progress in communication siences). Translated by: Izadi, P. Resāneh, 16 (4), 121-149.
‎Servas, J. (1991). Degargooni dar Nazariyehā-ye va tuse'eh. Translated by: Hoseyni Pākdehi, 'A. R. Resāneh, 16(4), 64-105.
Tehrāniān, M. (1355 [1976 A.D]). Gozāreš-e komiteh-ye etelā'āt va ertebāt-e jam'i. Barnāmeh-ye šešom (pišnevis-e duom). Tehrān.
Tehranian, M. (1994). Communication and Development. In Communication Theory Today, David Crawley and David Mitchell (Ed.). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Tehrānin, M. (N. D). Ab'ād-e ensāni-e tuse'eh. Tehrān: Pažuheškadeh-ye 'Olum-e Ertebāti va Tuse'eh-ye Irān.
UNESCO (1972) Report of the Meeting of Experts on Communication Policies and Planning. Paris. 17-18 July 1972. Paris: UNESCO.
Xāniki, H. (1381 [2002 A.D]). Qodrat, jāme'eh-ye madani va matbu'āt. Tehrān: Tarh-e Nu.
Xāniki, H. (1384 [2005 A.D]). Bonyān hā-ye motāle'āt-e ertebātāt va tuse'eh-ye meli dar Irān. 'Olum-e ejtemā'i, 28-29, 7-56.
Zhang, Y.; Wildemuth, B. M. (2009). Qualitative Analysis of Content. In B. Wildemuth (Ed.). Applications of Social Research Methods to Questions in Information and Library Science. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. 308-319.