Document Type : Scientific Research Manuscript


Assistant Professor of Sociology, Institute for Social and Cultural Studies, Tehran, Iran.


Main question of this research is how “self” is made during the “Student stage” of life? Most researches consider self-making process as the result of the efforts of socialization agents and important active role of the student is neglected. The results of our research showed the plans of the socialization agents constitute just a part of the student’s life-world which has called here as “plan sub-world”. But there is another neglected but important part here called as “play sub-world” which have not been addressed adequately by previous researches. “Play” here is defined as the activity which is done for its own sake not for any advantage it will bring. Play sub-world is where one can express him/herself freely, independent of the control of every pre-designed planning. Juvenile mischiefs like childish fights, teasing the teacher, runaway from the school, and cheating in the exams are samples of the activities of this sub-world. The student’s self, more can be made through this sub-world than everywhere else; because it is at this sub-world that student can express him/herself freely, actively and creatively (unlike plan sub-world in which student is more passive and under control). Therefore, the student life-world includes two plan and play sub-worlds and is made through the dialectic between these two sub-worlds; a dialectic which corresponds to dialectic between practice-thought; active-passive; creativity-memory; sender-receiver, and source-destination. The process of making self in this dialectic is the same as the process of making society.


Main Subjects

Khaniki, H. (2008). Dar jahān-e goft-o-gu [In the world of dialoge]. Tehran, Iran: Hermes.