Document Type : Scientific Research Manuscript


Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


In the Iranian family sociology, the dominant approach is based on this general idea that the family is the center of patriarchy. Based on this view, women at home are in subjugation and under male dominance. To support this idea, a lot of researches have been conducted in recent years. However, the present study does not seek to identify the patterns of female subjugation; rather it is in the process to identify the patterns of their resistance to male dominance within the home. As such, the study seeks to answer the question as how women use "culture" as a tool of resistance as well as to change the balance of power in the family. In this regard, 36 married women were interviewed. Findings showed that women use the strategies such as "struggle for meaning", "reverse decoding", "resistance to gender stereotypes", "resistance through tradition" and "appearance of obedience but hidden resistance within family" to resist the male dominance. Through these, they try to control male power in the home and balance it accordingly. Various resistance strategies indicate that women’s “resistance sources" in the family are numerous, which take place in different domains and in different ways.


Main Subjects

Azad Armaki, T. & Rezaei, M. (2006). Subject and power; Analyses of formation of subjectivity in cultural studies. Nāmeh-ye Oloom Ejtemā’i, 1(25), 125-156.

Bamdad, B. (1968). Iranian Women from the Constitutional Revolution to the White. Tehran, Iran: Ibn-e Sina Publications.

Khadije Afzal Vaziri Diaies (1975). Women world in Qajar website  (Harvard University). Document No. 14129A59 Retrieved from

Bayat, A. (2010). Life as Politics: How Ordinary People Change the Middle East, Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Bourdieu, P. & Passeron, J. (1990). Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture, (Richard Nice, Trans.). London: Sage.

Bourdieu, P. (2001). Masculine Domination (R. Nice, Trans.). Oxford: Polity Press.

Bourdieu, P., & Eagleton, T. (1992). Doxa and common life. New Left Review, 191, 111–121.

Bourdieu, P., & Wacquant, L. (1992). An invitation to reflexive sociology. Oxford: Polity Press.

Brym, R., & Lie, J. (2006). Sociology; Your compass for a new world. New York: Thomson Wadsworth.

Chafetz, J. (2006). Handbook of the sociology of gender. New York: Springer International Publishing.

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. London: Sage Publications.

Collier Rice, C. (2004). Persian women and their ways (A. Azad, Trans.). Tehran, Iran: Librarian Publishing.

Evans, M., Hemmings, C., Henry, M., Johnstone, H., Madhok, S., Plomien, A., Wearing, S. (2014). The Sage Handbook of Feminist Theory. London: Sage.

Firestone, S. (1970). The dialectic of sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution. New York: William Morrow.

Fiske, J. (1986). Television: Polysemy and popularity. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 3(4), 391-408.   doi: 10.1080/15295038609366672

Foucault, M. (1988). The Ethics of Care for the Self as the Practice of Freedom. In the Final Foucault, J. W Bernauer and D. Rasmussen (eds), 1-20. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Foucault, M. (1990). The History of Sexuality (Volume I: An Introduction; R. Hurley, Trans.). New York: Pantheon Books.

Foucault, M. (2006). Discipline and punish; The birth of the prison. Alan Sheridan (Trans.). New York: Vintage Books.

Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. (2006). The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research. New Jersey: Aldine Transaction.

Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the Prison notebooks (Q. Hoare, & G. Nowell Smith, Trans.). New York: International Publishers Co.

Hall, S. (2005). Encoding/decoding, In Culture, Media, Language: Working papers in cultural studies, 1972-79. Hall, S., Hobson, D., Lowe, A., & Willis, P. (Eds.). LOndon: Routledge.  doi: 10.4324/9780203381182

Henslin, J. (2014). Essentials of sociology. New York: Pearson Publications.

Hobsbawm, E., & Ranger, T. (1992). The invention of tradition. UK: Cambridge University Press.

Inzlicht, M., & Schmader, T. (2011). Stereotype threat: Theory, process, and application. UK: Oxford University Press.

Jensen, R. & Whisnant, R. (2017). The end of patriarchy: radical feminism for men. City: Spinifex Press.

Kermani, N. (2008). History of Iranians' awakening. Tehran, Iran: Amirkabir.

Mackay, F. (2015). Radical Feminism: Feminist Activism in Movement. Palgrave Macmillan.

Mahboubi Ardakani, H. (1978). History of new civilization Institutions in Iran (1st ed.). Tehran, Iran: University of Tehran Press.

Malah, N. M. (2006). From the women of the Iranian pioneer: Afzal Vaziri, The daughter of Bibi Estarabadi.Tehrān, Iran: Nashr o Pajhohesh-e Shirazeh.

Malekzadeh, M. (2003). History of the Iranian constitutional revolution. Tehrān, Iran: Entešārāt-e Sokhan.

Nahid, A. (1981). Iranian women in the constitutional movement. Tehrān, Iran: Entešārāt-e Ehya.

Qawimi, F. (1973). The record of famous Iranian women from before Islam to the present era. Tehran, Iran: Ministry of Education.

Risman, B., Froyum, C., & Scarborough. W. (2018). Handbook of the Sociology of Gender. New York: Springer.

sadeghi, S. & Mirhoseeini, Z. (2016). Understanding housework in the context of gender roles: Qualitative study. Social Sciences, 23(73), 1-31. doi: 10.22054/qjss.2016.7204

Sanasarian, E. (1982). The women's rights mouement in Iran: mutiny, appeasement, and repressian from 1900 to Khomeini (N. Ahmadi Khorasani, Trans.). Tehrān, Iran: Akhtaran.

Schaefer, R. (2012). Sociology; a brief introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill Humanities.

Taj Al-Saltaneh (1974). Memoirs of Taj Al-Saltaneh (M. Etehadieh, & S. Saadvandian, Eds.). Tehran, Iran: Naŝr-e Tārix-e Irān.

Thompson, D. (2001). Radical Feminism Today. Sage Publications.

Weber. M. (2019). Economy and Society (K. Tribe, Trans.). US: Harvard University Press.

Weitz, R. (2001). Women and Their Hair: Seeking Power Through Resistance and Accomodation, Gender & Society, 15 (5), 667-686.

Wharton, A. S. (2005). The sociology of gender: An introduction to theory and research. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.