جهانی‌شدن و هویت‌های محلی و جهانی دانشجویان (مطالعه موردی: دانشگاه تبریز)

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد پژوهش اجتماعی از دانشگاه تبریز

2 استاد دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

فرایند جهانی‌شدن موضوعی بحث‌برانگیز و در عین حال مبهم است و از دیدگاه‌های متفاوت و گاه متضاد بدان پرداخته شده است. یکی از بحث‌های مهم مربوط به این فرایند، مسئله بقا یا تداوم هویت‌های محلی در جریان این حرکت است. در این رابطه دیدگاه‌های متفاوتی ارائه شده است؛ از آن جمله برخی ادعا می‌کنند جهانی‌شدن تأثیر منفی بر هویت‌های محلی داشته و از بین برنده تفاوت‌هاست و عده‌ای نیز خلاف این نظر را بیان می‌کنند. مقاله حاضر، سه رویکرد متفاوت و اساسی را در این خصوص شناسایی و توسط داده‌های تحقیق به آزمون گذاشته است. این تحقیق که به روش پیمایشی در بین دانشجویان تُرک، فارس و کرد دانشگاه تبریز انجام شده نشانگر آن است که با افزایش هویت جهانی در بین دانشجویان، هویت محلی آنان کاهش می‌یابد؛ یعنی با افزایش فرایند جهانی‌شدن، هویت‌های محلی رو به کاهش می‌گذارد و این به معنای رد نظریه‌های رویکرد دوم و سوم در این تحقیق، و تأیید نظریه‌های رویکرد اول است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Abbâsi, K. (1383[2004 A.D]) Hoviat-e Ejtemâee va Avâmel-e Moaser bar ân (Persian
Translation of Social Identity and the Effective Factors), M.A Dissertation, Faculty
of Social Sciences, University of Tabriz.
Âgâzâdeh, H. (1374 [1995 A.D]) Hoviat-e Jamee: Barresi-e Jâmeehšenâxti-e Abâd-e
Hoviat-e Dânešgooyân-e Dânešgâh-e Allâmeh Tabâtabâee (Persian Translation of
Collective Identity: Sociological Study of Allâme Tabâtabâee University Students`
Identity), M.A Thesis, Faculty of Humanities, Allâme Tabâtabâee University.
Ahmadi, H. (1381 [2002 A.D]) “ Jahânišdan; Hoviat-e Qomi yâ Hoviat-e Melli (Persian
Translation of Globalization; Ethnic Identity and National Identity), Motâleât-e
Meli, Vol.-( 11): 13-36.
Âmeli, S. (1380 [2001 A.D]) “Taâmol-e Jahânišodan, Šahrvandi va Din” (Persian
Translation of Globalization`s Interaction, Citizenship and Religion), Nâmeh
Oloom-e Ejtemâee, Vol.- (18): 167-200.
_______ (1383 [2004 A.D]) “Dojahânišodanhâ va Ayandeh Hoviathây-e Hamzamân”
(Persian Translation of Dual-Globalizations and the Future of Synchronic Identities),
Majmooe Maqalât va Soxanrânihây-e Noxostin Kârgâh-e Ayandeh Andiši, Tehrân:
Moaseseh Âli Âmoozeš va Pažooheš-e Modiriat va Barnâmehrizi.
Amin, S. (1996) “The Challenge of Globalization”, Review of International Political
Economy, Vol. 3 (2): 216-219.
Ârmi, A. ( 1383 [ 2004 A.D]) Motâleeh Tatbiqi-e Hoviat-e Mahali va Jahâni dar Beyn-e
Dânešjooyân-e Dânešgâh-e Tabriz ( Persian Translation of Comparative Study of
Local and Global Identity among Students` of Tabriz University), M.A Thesis,
Faculty of Social Sciences, Tabriz University.
Aronson, P. (1376 [1997 A.D]) “Meligarâee, Jahânišodan va Moderniteh” (Persian
Translation of Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity), Translated by Kâši,
Rasânehâ va Farhang, Tehrân: Katâ-e Sorooš.
Baširieh, H. (1379 [2000 A.D]) “Toseeh Siâsi va Bohrân-e Hoviat-e Meli” (Persian
Translation of Political Development and National Identity Crisis), Motâleât-e
Meli, Vol.- (5): 287-315.
Berry, J. W. (2008) “Globalization and Acculturation”, International Journal of
Intercultural Relations, Vol. 32 (4): 328- 336.
Bhawuk, D. P. S. (2008) “Globalization and Indigenous Cultures: Homogenization or
Differentiation?”, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 32 (4): 305-
317.
Blum, D. (2003) Globalization and Identity in the Transcaspian Region, Washington:

Center for Strategic and International Studies Washington. D. C.
Branch, C. W., Tayal, P., & Triplett, C. (2000) “The Relationship of Ethnic Identity and
Ego Identity Status among Adolescents and Young Adults”, International Journal
of Intercultural relations, Vol.24 (6): 777-790.
Breton, R. (1988) “From Ethnic to Civic Nationalism”, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol.
11 (1): 85-102.
Castels, M. (1380[2001 A.D]) Asr-e Etelâât: Eqtesâd, Jâmeeh va Farhang (Qodrat-e
Hoviat) (Persian Translation of The Rise of the Network Society, The Information
Age: Economy, Society and Culture), Translated by Hasan Čâvošiân, Tehrân: Tarh-e
No.
Castles, S. and et al (1992) Mistaken Identity, Sydeny: Pluto press.
Dahešyâr, H. (1379 [2000 A.D]) “Jahânišdan-e Takâmol-e Farâyandhây-e Boroonbari-e
Arzešhâ va Nahâdhây-e Ğarbi” (Persian Translation of Globalization of Process`s
Evolution of Values and Western Institutions), Etelâât-e Siâsi-Eqtesâdi, Vol.- (-):
165-166.
Dehširi, M. (1379 [2000 A.D]) “Jahânišodan va Hoviat-e Melli” (Persian Translation of
Globalization and National Identity), Motâleât-e Melli, Vol.- (5): 71-100.
Doutsche, K. W. (1966) Nationalism and Social Communication, Second edition,
Cambridge: The M. I. T Press.
Friedman, T. L. (2000) The Lexus and the Olive Tree, New York: Farrar.
Fukuyama, Francis. (1992) The End of History and The Last Man, New York: Avon
Books.
Giddens, A. (1991) The Consequences of Modernity, Cambridge: Polity press.
Guibernau i Berdu, M. (1378[1999 A.D]) Makâteb-e Nâsionâlism va Dolat-Melat
dar Qarn-e Bistom (Persian Translation of Nationalisms: the Nation-state and
Nationalism in the Twentieth Century), Translated by Amir Masood Ejtehâdi,
Tehrân: Našr-e Vezârat-e Omoor-e Xâejeh.
Hâjiâni, E. (1379 [2000 A.D]) “Tahlil-e Jâmeehšenâxti-e Hoviat-e Meli dar Irân va
Tarh-e Čand Farzieh” (Persian Translation of Sociological Analysis of National
Identity in Iran and Planning Few Hypothesis), Motâleât-e Melli, Vol.- (5): 193-
228.
Held, D. (1999) Global Transformation, London and New York: The Open University,
Routledge Press.
Hobsbawm, E. (1990) Nations and Nationalism since 1780, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Huntingtion, S. (1992) “The Clash of Civilization”, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 32 (3): 22-79.

________ (1373 [1994 A.D]) Nazarieh Barxord-e Tamadonhâ: Hântington va
Montaqedânaš (Persian Translation of The clash of Civilizations Huntington and
his Critic), Virâsteh Mojtabâ Amiri, Tehrân: Vezârat-e Omoor-e Xârejeh.
Karimi Maleh, A. (1379[2000 A.D]) “Soxan-e Sardabir” (Persian Translation of
Introduction of Editor in Chief), Motâleât-e Meli, Vol.- (5): 7-8.
Karimi Maleh, A. (1379[2000 A.D]) “Soxan-e Sardabir” (Persian Translation of
Introduction of Editor in Chief), Motâleât-e Meli, Vol.- (4): 7-8.
Kim, Y. Y., Bhawuk, D. (2008) “Globalization and Diversity: Contributions from
Intercultural Research”, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 32
(4): 301-304.
Legrain, P. (2002) Open World: The Truth about Globalization, London: Abacus.
Levitt, T. (1983) “The Globalization of Markets”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 61
(3): 92-102.
Liber, J. R., & Weisberg, E. R. (2002) “Globalization, Culture and Identities in Crisis”,
International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, Vol. 16 (2): 273-296.
Maqsoodi, M. (1379[2000 A.D]) “Farhang, Ertebâtât va Tahavolât-e Qomi” (Persian
Translation of Culture, Communications and Ethnic Evolutions), Motâleât-e Meli,
Vol.- (6): 171-196.
McGrew, A. (1992) “A Global Society”, in S. Hall, D. Held & T. McGrew (Eds.),
Modernity and its futures, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Mckay, H. (2000) “Globalization of Culture” in: A Globalizing World? Culture,
Economic, Politics, London Routledge.
Mowlana, H., & Robinsons, A. E. (1979) Ethnic Mobilization and Communication
Theory, Ethnicity in an International Context, New Brunswick: N. J. Transaction
Books.
Nonežâd, M. (1384 [2005 A.D]) “Jahânišodan, Tasirât-e Farhangi-e ân” (Persian
Translation of Globalization and Cultural Effects), Faslnâmeh Taxasosi-e Oloom-e
Siâsi Dânešgâh-e Âzâd-e Eslâmi, Vol.- (2): 189-211.
Ohmae, K. (1998) The End of the Nation State; The Rise of Regional Economies, New
York: Diane publishing Company.
Phinney, J. S. (1992) “The Multi Group Ethnic Identity Measure: A New Scale for Use
with Diverse Groups” Journal of Adolescent Research, Vol. 7 (2): 156-176.
Qoreyši, F. (1381 [2002 A.D]) “Jahânišodan va Tahavol dar Tasavor-e mâ az Xištan”
(Persian Translation of Globalization and The Evolution of it on Our Self-
Perception), Motâleât-e Meli, Vol.- (11): 37-59.
Rafipour, F. (1381 [2002 A.D]) Kandokâvhâ va Pendâštâ (Persian Translation of

Researches and Supposes), Tehrân: Šerkat-e Sahâmi-e Enstešâr.
Robertson, R. (1992) Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture, London: Sage
Publication.
________ (1383[2004 A.D]) “Jahâni-Mahali Šodan; Zamân-Fazâ va Hamgooni-
Nâhamgooni” (Persian Translation of Glocalization: Time-Space and Homogeneity-
Heterogeneity), Translated by Morâd Farhâdpour, Faslnâmeh Arqanoon, Vol.-
(24):211-238.
Rosenau, J. N., & Czempiel, E. O. (Eds.) (1989) Global Change and Theoretical
Challenge, Lexington: MA Lexington Books.
Sajâpour, M. (1381[2002 A.D]) Jahânišodan, Bardâšthâ va Payâmadhâ (Persian
Translation of Globalization, Understandings and Consequences), Tehrân: Našr-e
Vezârat-e Omoor-e Xârejeh.
Schaeffer, R. K. (2003) Understanding Globalization: The Social Consequences
of Political, Economic, and Environmental Change, Lanham, MD: Rowman &
Littlefield.
Seyyedemâmi, K. (1376[1997 A.D]) “Meligarâee-e Qomi, dar Jostojooy-e Dark-e
Pištar” (Persian Translation of Ethnic Nationalism; A Seek for More Understanding),
Motâleât-e Xâvar-e Miâneh, Vol.- (10):-.
Sklair, L. (1994) Capitalism and Development in Global Perspective, London:
Routledge.
Sklair, L. (1999) “Competing Conception of Globalization”, Journal of World System
Research, Vol.2 (1): 143-163.
Tâk, M. (1379 [2000 A.D]) “Rošanfekr-e Irâni va Moamây-e Hoviat-e Melli” (Persian
Translation of Iranian Intellectual and National Identity Riddle), Motâleât-e Meli,
Vol.-( 5): 159-176.
Tavasoli, Ğ., Qâsemi, Y. (1381 [2002 A.D]) “ Monâsebât-e Qomi va Râbeteye ân ba
Tahavol-e Hoviat-e Jamee” (Persian Translation of Ethnic Relations and Collective
Identity Evolution), Majaleh Jâmeehšenâsi, Vol.- (4): 3-25.
Ting-Toomey, S., Yee-Jung, K. K., Shapiro, R. B., Garcia, W., Wright, T. J., & Oetzel,
J. G. (2000) “Ethnic & Cultural Identity Salience and Conflict Styles in Four Us
Ethnic Groups”, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol.24 (-): 47-
81.
Turner, B. S. (2000) Globalization and the Post Modernization of Culture, Globalization
the Reader, London: Athlone Press.
Vedder, P., & Virta, E. (2005) “Language, Ethnic Identity and the Adaptation of
Turkish Immigrant Youth in the Netherlands and Sweden”, International Journal of
Intercultural Relations, Vol. 29(3): 317-337.

Wallerstein, I. (1979) The Capitalist World Economy, Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.
Waterz, M. (1379 [2000 A.D]) Jahânišodan (Persian Translation of Globalization),
Translated by Esmâeel Mardâi Givi va Maridi, Tehrân: Našr-e Sâzmân.
Wiseman, J. (1998) Global Nation?, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Yoosefi, A. (1379[2000 A.D]) “Mizgerd: Farhang va Hoviat-e Irâni” (Persian Translation
of Culture and Iranian Identity), Motâleât-e Meli, Vo.- (4): 11-60.
Yoshino, K. (1992) Culture Nationalism in Contemporary: A Sociological Enquiry,
London: Routledge.