جایگاه هویت ملی در نظام آموزش و پرورش ایران

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد برنامه‌ریزی درسی

2 استادیار گروه روان‌شناسی دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

هویت ملی از مباحث مهم و برجسته در دنیای امروز است. نیاز به آن و احساس تعلق، وفاداری و گرایش به سمت آن از ضرورت‌های انکارناپذیر در هر جامعه‌ای محسوب می‌شود. با توجه به اینکه نظام آموزش و پرورش در همه کشورها بزرگ‌ترین نیرو و سرمایه انسانی را در اختیار دارد، می‌تواند یکی از بهترین راه‌های تحکیم و تقویت هویت ملی به شمار آید و برنامه‌های درسی به عنوان یکی از ارکان اصلی این نظام می‌توانند نقشی محوری و کلیدی در شکل‌گیری هویت ملی ایفا کنند. با توجه به موارد فوق، هدف اصلی این تحقیق بررسی جایگاه هویت ملی در نظام آموزش و پرورش است. به این منظور ابتدا به طور مقایسه‌ای هویت ملی در نظام آموزش و پرورش ایران و دیگر کشورها مورد واکاوی قرار گرفته و سپس علل ضعف هویت ملی در نظام آموزش و پرورش ایران بیان شده است. در ادامه با موشکافی در اهداف کلی و آموزشی سه مقطع، میزان توجه به مقوله هویت ملی در بیان این اهداف مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است. نتایج این بررسی نشان داد در اهداف تصریح‌شده برای نظام آموزشی ایران، هویت ملی از جایگاه مطلوبی برخوردار نیست و با توجه به تأثیرگذار بودن این مقوله در سایر زمینه‌هایی که به توسعه و تحکیم کشور مربوط است، نیاز به تجدیدنظر و بازاندیشی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Âjoodâni, M. (1382 [2003 A.D]) Mašrooteh Irâni (Persian Translation of Iranian
Constitution Revolution), Tehrân: Našr-e Axtarân.
Alâqeband, A. (1373 [1994 A.D]) Moqadamât-e Modiriat-e Âmoozeši (Persian
Translation of An Introduction to Educational Management), Tehrân :Besat.
Alirezâee, M. (1385 [2006 A.D]) Jâygâh-e Hoviat-e Meli va Dini dar Kotob-e Darsi-e
Doreye Motevaseteh (Persian Translation of National Identity and Religion in
High Scholl Text Books), M.A Dissertation, Faculty of Literature and Humanities,
Birjand University.
Âmeli, S. (1386 [2007 A.D]) “Hoviat-e Jamee dar Fazây-e Irâni Dofazâee šodeh: Din va
Ehsâs-e Taalogh-e Meli” (Persian Translation of Collective Identity in Iranian Dual
Space: Religion and National Identity Dependency), Selseleh Maqâlât va Goftâee
Pirâmoon-e Hoviat-e Irâni, Edited by Zahrâ Hayâti, Tehrân: Šerkat-e Entešârât-e
Sooreyeh Mehr.
Bahârloo, M. (1387 [2008 A.D]) Barresi-e Jâygâh-e Hoviat-e Melii dar Ketâbhây-e
Darsi-e Reštey-e Riâzi va Oloom-e Tajrobi (Persian Translation of National Identity
in Mathematics and Natural Sciences’ Textbooks), M.A Dissertation, Faculty of
Education and Psychology, Alzahra University.
Fereshteh, M. H. (1992) “The U.S. and Japanese Education: Should They Be
Compared?”, Paper presented at Lehigh University’s conference on education and
economics in technologically advancing countries, Bethlehem, PA, October 16,
Online available from ERIC (ED365642), retrieved 15/11/2009.
Grosvenor, L. (2000) “There’s No Place Like Home”: Education and the Making of
National identity, History of Education, 11 (2): 235-250.
Hâjiâni, E. (1379 [2000 A.D]) “Tahlil-e Jâmeešenâxti-e Hoviat-e Meli dar Irân va Tarh-e
Čand Farzieh” (Persian Translation of Sociological Analysis of National Identity in
Iran), Faslnâmeh Motâleât-e Meli, Vol.- ( 5): 193-228.
Imâni Nâeeni, M. (1386 [2007 A.D]) “Jâygâh va Naqš-e Talim va Tarbiat dar Tahqiq-e
Hoviat-e Meli” (Persian Translation of Education`s Role in National Identity
Research), Hoviat-e Irâni, Edited by Zahrâ Hayâti, Tehrân: Šerkat-e Entešârât-e
Sooreh.
Kaffaš, H., Faridi, M. (1375 [1996 A.D]) “Šivehây-e Moqâbeleh bâ Tahâjom-e
Farhangi dar Beyn-e Dânešâmoozân-e Šahr-e Tehrân” (Persian Translation of The
Oppositional Methods for Cultural Invasion among Students of Tehran), Mâhnâmeh
Tarbiat, Vol.11 (10): 6-13.
Kamâli Kâr Sâlâri, N. (1386 [2007 A.D]) Tahlil-e Mohtavây-e Moalefehây-e Hoviat-e

Meli dar Kotob-e Dorey-e Âmoozeš-e Râhnamâee (Persian Translation of Content
Analysis of National Identity Factors in Secondary School`s Text Books), M.A
Dissertation, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Mazandaran University.
Keller, D. & Dror, I. (1995) “Planning Non-formal Education Curricula: The Case
of Israel”, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational
Research Association, San Francisco. CA, April 18-22, available from ERIC
(ED384996), retrieved 15/11/2009.
Kim, H. J. (2004) “National Identity in Korean Curriculum”, Canadian Social Studies,
Vol.38 (3): 74-89.
Loghmânniâ, M. (1388[2009 A.D]) Šenâsâee Moalefehây-e Hoviat-e Meli dar
Barnâmehây-e Darsi bar Asâs-e Raveš-e Bonyâdšenâxti-e Nazarieh (Persian
Translation of Knowing Elements of National Identity in Curriculum), M.A
Dissertation, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Birjand University.
Lotfâbâdi, H. (1383 [2004 A.D]) “Âmoozeš-e Šahrvand-e Meli va Jahâni Hamrâh bâ
Tahkim-e Vahdat va Nezâm-e Arzeši-e Dânešâmoozân” (Persian Translation of
Teaching National and Global Citizens with Unity and Norm System of Students),
Faslnâmeh Noâvarihây-e Âmoozeši, Vol. 5(17): 11-43.
Lotfâbâdi, H., Noroozi, V. (1383 b [ 2004 A.D]) “Nazariyehpardâzi va Meqyâs Sâzi
barây-e Sanješ-e Nezâm-e Arzeši ba Manzoor-e Barresi-e Tasir-e Jahânišodan bar
Nezâm-e Arzeši-e Dânešâmoozân-e Javân-e Irân” (Persian Translation of Theory
Building for Norm System Investigation to study Globalization’s Impact on Norm
System of Iranian Students), Faslnâmeh Noâvarihây-e Âmoozeši, Vol. 3 (7): 33-
58.
_______ (1383 c [2004 A.D]) “Sanješ-e Barresi-e Čegoonegi-e Negareš-e
Dânešâmoozân-e Dabirestâni va Pišdânešgâhibe Jahânišodan va Tasir-e ân bar
Arzešhâ va Hoviat-e Dini va Meli-e ânhâ” (Persian Translation of High School
Students` Perspective on Globalization and its Effects on Values, Religious and
National Identity), Faslnâmeh Noâvarihây-e Âmoozeši, Vol.3 (9): 88-119.
Miller, M. (1362 [1983 A.D]) Nazariyehây-e Barnâmeh Darsi (Persian Translation of
The Educational Spectrum: Orientations to Curriculum), Translated by Mahmood
Mehrmohammadi, Tehrân : Samt.
Mohseni, N. (1383 [2004 A.D]) Nazariyehâ dar Ravânšenâsi-e Rošd (Persian
Translation of Theories and Psychology of Growth), Tehrân: Pardis.
Mollâsâdeqi, M. (1378 [1999 A.D]) Naqš-e Faâliathây-e Farhangi-e Madâres dar
Šekldehi-e Hoviat-e Irâni Dânešâmoozân (Persian Translation of The Role of
Cultural Activities in Forming Student`s Iranian Identity, M.A Dissertation, Islamic
Azad University.
Mollâyinežâd, A. (1381 [2002 A.D]) “Tamiq-e Hoviat-e Meli az Tariq-e Barnâmehây-e

Darsi” (Persian Translation of Reinforcing National Identity with Curriculums),
Majaleh Oloom-e Tarbiati va Ravânšenâsi Dânešgâh-e Ferdowsi Mašhad, Vol.-
(1): 643-656.
Nošâdi, M. (1386 [2007 A.D]) Barresi-e Čegoonegi-e Tarh-e Hoviat-e Meli dar
Ketâbhây-e Talimât-e Ejtemâee Panjom-e Ebtedâee va Sevom-e Râhnmâee (Persian
Translation of Representation of National Identity in Social Teachings Text Book
in Last Stage of both Elementary and Secondary Education), M.A Dissertation,
Faculty of Social Sciences, Shirâz University.
Ornestein, A. Hunkins, F. (1384 [2005 A.D]) Mabâni, Osool va Masâel Barnâmey-e
Darsi (Persian Translation of Curriculum - Foundations, Principles, and Issues),
Translated by Qodsi Ahqar, Tehrân: Entešârât Dânešgâh Âzâd Eslâmi, Tehrân,
Oloom Taqiqât.
Parmenter, L. (1999) “Constructing National Identity in a Changing World: Perspectives
in Japanese Education”, British Journal of Sociology of Education, Vol.20 (4): 453-
63.
Parvand, M. (1380 [2001 A.D]) Moqadamât-e Barnâmehrizi-e Âmoozeši va Darsi
(Persian Translation of An Introduction to Curriculum and Educational Planning),
Tehrân: Šiveh.
Phuntsog, N. (1994) “Renewal of Tibetan School Curriculum in Exile”, A Tibetan-centric
approach, Reports descriptive, from: ERIC (ED383617), retrieved 15/11/2009.
Poole, R. (2003) “National Identity and Citizenship”, in Linda, Martin Alcoff and
Eduardo Mendieta (Eds), Identities, UK: Black Well Publishing.
Qoorčiân, N., Tansâz, F. ( 1374 [ 2005 A.D]) Simây-e Ravand-e Tahavolât-e Barnâmeh
Darsi be Onvân-e Yek Rešteyeh Taxasosi ax Jahân-e Bâstân ta Jahân-e Emrooz
(Persian Translation of The Process of Curriculum Evaluations from Ancient World
to Contemporary World), Tehrân: Moasese Pažooheš va Barnâmehrizi-e ÂmoozešÂli.
Rabbâni, J. (1382 [2003 A.D]) “Barnâmehây-e Darsi va Šeklgiri-e Hoviat” (Persian
Translation of Curriculum and Identity Formation), Majaleh Oloom-e Tarbiati va
Ravânšenâsi Dânešgâh-e Mašhad, Vol.4 (1): 657-670.
Ravâsâni, Š. (1385 [2006 A.D]) Zaminehây-e Ejtemâee-e Hoviat-e Meli (Persian
Translation of The Social Contexts of National Identity), Tehrân: Markaz-e
Bâzšenâsi-e Eslâm va Irân.
Razâzifar, A. (1379 [2000 A.D]) “Olgooy-e Jâmeešenâsi-e Hoviat-e Meli dar Irân
ba Takid bar Râbetey-e Hoviat-e Meli va Abâd-e ân” (Persian Translation of
Sociological Pattern of Iranian National Identity: with Emphasis on National
Identity), Faslnâmeh Motâleât-e Meli, Vol.2 (5): 101-132.
Sâdeq Zâdeh, R. ( 1386 [ 2007 A.D]) Barresiy-e Namâdhây-e Hoviat-e Meli dar

Ketâbhây-e Darsi-e Târix va Adabiât-e Farsi Dorey-e Motevaseteh Reštey-e
Oloom-e Ensâni (Persian Translation of Investigation of National Identity Signs
in Persian Literature Books of High School in the Humanities), M.A Dissertation,
Faculty of Humanities, University of Tarbiat Modarres.
Šakibâeeyân, T. ( 1383 [ 2004 A.D]) Barresi va Tahlil-e Mohtavây-e Kotob-e Darsi-e
Dorey-e Ebtedâee dar Šekldehi be Hoviat-e Meli ( Persian Translation of The
Analysis of Elementary Text Books in National Identity Formation), M.A
Dissertation, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Mazandaran University.
Sâlehi Omrân, E., Sâkibâeeyân, T. (1386 [2007 A.D]) “Barresi-e Mizân-e Tavajoh ba
Moalefehây-e Hoviat-e Meli dar Ketâbhây-e Darsi Dorey-e Âmoozeš-e Ebtedâee”
(Persian Translation of Attention to National Identity Factors in Elementary Text
Books), Faslnâmeh Motâleât-e Meli, Vol.8 (1): 29.
Šamširi, B. (1385 [2006 A.D]) “Erâey-e Olgooy-e Nazari be Manzoor-e Jahatdehi va
Sâmândehi-e Faâliathây-e Omoor-e Tarbiati dar Nezâm-e Âmoozeš va Parvareš bâ
Eqtebâs az Âmoozehây-e Erfân Eslâmi” (Persian Translation of Theoretical Pattern
for Shaping Educational Activities in Iran`s Educational System), Majaleh Oloom-e
Ejtemâee va Ensâni-e Dânešgâh-e Širâz, Vol.25 (4): 113-134.
_____ (1387 [2008 A.D]) Darâmadi bar Hoviat-e Meli (Persian Translation of An
Introduction to National Identity), Širâz: Navid-e Širâz.
Šamširi, B., Nošâdi, M. (1386 [2007 A.D]) “Barresi-e Mizân-e Barxordâri-e Kotob-e
Darsi, Târix va Talimât-e Ejtemâee-e Dorey-e Râhnamâee-e Tahsili az Moalefehây-e
Hoviat-e Meli” (Persian Translation of The Inclusion of National Identity Factors in
Elementary Text Books of History), Faslnâmeh Motâleât-e Barnâmeh Darsi, Vol.
2 (61): 51-78.
Sâzmân-e Pažooheš va Barnâmerizi-e Âmoozeši ( 1377 [ 1998 A.D]) Ahdâf-e
Koli va Âmoozeši-e Maqâte Segâneh Âmoozeš va Parvareš, Available at http://
www.sce.ir/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=46%3A--
&catid=23&Itemid=6&lang=fa
Schultz, D. (1379 [2000 A.D]) Nazariyehây-e Šaxsiat (Persian Translation of Theories
of Personality), Translated by Yahyâ Seyyed Mohammadi, Tehrân: Virâyeš.
Šeyxâvandi, D. (1369 [1990 A.D]) Zâyeš va Xizeš-e Melat (Persian Translation of The
Birth and Rise of a Nation), Tehrân: Qoqnoos.
______ (1379 [2000 A.D]) Takvin va Tanfiz-e Hoviat-e Irâni (Persian Translation of
Evolution of Iranian Identity), Tehrân: Markaz-e Bâzšenâsi-e Eslâm va Irân.
______ (1383 [2004 A.D]) Bâztâb-e Hoviat-e Aqvâm-e Irâni Dar Ketâbhây-e Darsi-e
Dorehây-e Ebtedâee va Râhnamâee (Persian Translation of Representation of
Iranian Ethnic Identity in Elementary and Secondary Text Books), Faslnâmeh Talim
va Tarbiat, Vol.- (87): 120-93.

Siriwardena, R. (2002) National Identity, Content of Education and Ethnic Perception,
Retrieved 2009/5/2, www.sangam.org/analaysis national-identity.htm
Smith, A. (1383 [2004 A.D]) Nâsoyoonâlism, Nazariyeh, Ideoložg, Târix (Persian
Translation of Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History), Translated by Mansoor
Ansâri, Tehrân: Motâleât Meli, Tamadon-e Irâni.
Šokrixânqâh, H. (1379 [2000 A.D]) Naqš-e Mohtavây-e Ketâbhây-e Darsi-e Dorey-e
Tahsili-e Ebtedâee dar Etelây-e Hoviat-e Meli (Persian Translation of The Role
of Text Books` Contents during Elementary Education on National Identity), M.A
Dissertation, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Islamic Azad University of
Roodehen Branch.
Tâlebi, S. (1378 [1999 A.D]) Tahavol-e Hoviat-e Meli-e Dânešâmoozân-e Doxtar
Dorehây-e Tahsili-e Ebtedâee, Râhnamâee va Motevasetey-e Šahr-e Tehrân (Persian
Translation of the Evolution of Female Students National Identity; Elementary,
Secondary and High School Students), M.A Dissertation, Faculty of Humanities,
Tarbiat Modarres.
Tavakoli Nik, X. (1380 [2001 A.D]) Barresi-e Nagareš-e Dânešâmoozân-e Maqtae
Motevaseteh-e Šahr-e Tehrân dar Mored-e Tahâjom-e Farhangi va Šivehây-e
Moqâbele bâ ân (Persian Translation of Tehran`s Students’ Perspective on Cultural
Invasion and The Methods of Opposition with), Tehrân: Šorây-e Tahqiqât-e Edâri-e
Kol-e Šahr-e Tehrân.
Tavasoli, Ğ., Qâsemi, Y. (1383 [2004 A.D]) “Hoviathây-e Jamee va Jahâni Šodan”
(Persian Translation of Collective Identity and Globalization), Nâmeh Oloom-e
Ejtemâee, Vol.- (24): 1-26.
Yârmohammadiân, M. (1377 [1998 A.D]) Osool-e Barnâmehrizi-e Darsi (Persian
Translation of The Principles of Educational Curriculum), Tehrân: Yâdvâreh
Katâb.