رابطة سبک زندگی و تصور بدن؛ مطالعة موردی: زنان شهر شیراز

نویسندگان

1 استادیار جامعه شناسی دانشگاه شیراز

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جامعه شناسی دانشگاه شیراز

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد برنامه‌ریزی توریسم دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

مطالعة حاضر، رابطة سبک زندگی به عنوان شاخصی از فرایند جهانی‌شدن را با تصور بدن مورد بررسی قرار داده است. بدین منظور 508 زن ساکن شیراز با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری سیستماتیک انتخاب شدند. با توجه به نظریات موجود و مطالعات انجام‌شدة قبلی، چهارچوب نظری تحقیق بر اساس نظریه گیدنز، تنظیم و بر اساس آن شش فرضیه مطرح شده است. اطلاعات مورد نیاز با روش پیمایشی و پرسشنامه‌ایِ خودگزارشی جمع‌آوری شد. به منظور تحلیل و تبیین داده‌ها، روش‌های آماری تحلیل پراکنش یک‌طرفه و رگرسیون چندمتغیره به کار گرفته شد. نتایج به‌دست‌آمده نشان داده‌اند از میان عوامل تأثیر‌گذار بر تصور بدن، تنها سبک‌های فراغتی، مذهبی و موسیقیایی مدرن به ترتیب توانسته‌اند بر روی هم بیش از 22 درصد از تغییرات متغیر وابسته را تبیین کنند. از این میان به غیر از سبک‌های مذهبی که دارای رابطه‌ای منفی با تصور بدن بوده‌اند، سایر سبک‌ها رابطة مثبتی با متغیر وابسته داشته‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Abâzari, Y., Čâvošiân, H. (1381 [2002 A.D]) “az Tabaqeh Ejtemâi tâ Sabk-e Zendegi:
Rooykardhây-e Novin dar Tahlil-e Jâmešenâxti-e Hoviat-e Ejtemâei” (Persian
Translation of From Social Class to Lifestyle: The New Perspective in Sociological
Analysis of Social Identity), Nâmeh Oloom-e Ejtemâei, Vol. 5(20): 3-27.
Archibald, A. B., Graber, J. A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1999) “Associations among
Parent Adolescent Relationships, Pubertal Growth, Dieting, and Body
Image in Young Adolescent Girls: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study”, Journal of
Research on Adolescence, Vol. 9(-): 395-415.
Attie, I., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1989) “Development of Eating Problems in Adolescent
Girls: A longitudinal Study”, Developmental Psychology, Vol. 25(-): 70-79.
Âzâdarmaki, T., Čâvošiân, H. (1381 [2002 A.D]) “Badan bemosâbeh-e Hoviat” (Persian
Translation of Body as Identity), Majaleh Jâmešenâsi Irân, Vol. 4(4): 57-75.
Bahram, A. & Shafizade, M. (2006) “A Comparative and Corrolational Study of the
Body Image in Active and Inactive Adults and Body Composition and Soatotype”,
Journal of Applied Science, Vol. 6 (-): 2456-2460.
Borhâni, F., Abbâszâdeh, A., Kohan, S., Golšan, M., Dortâj, A. (1386 [ 2007 A.D])
“Barresi-e Râbetey-e Sabk-e Zendegi va Šâxes-e Toodey-e Badani dar Javânân
Šahr-e Kermân” (Persian Translation of Lifestyle and Body Mass Index in Kermani
Youth), Pažooheš-e Parastâri, Vol. 2 (6,7): 65-72.
Botta, R. A. (2003) “For Your Health? The Relationship between Magazine Reading
and Adolescents’ Body Image and Eating Order, Disturbance”, Sex Roles, Vol. 48
(9/10): 389-399.
Brown, T. A., Cash, T. F., & Mikulka, P. J. (1990) “Attitudinal body image assessment:
Factor analysis of the Body Self-Relations Questionnaire”, Journal of Personality
Assessment, Vol.55 (-): 135–144.
Cash, T. F., & Strachan, M. D. (2002) Cognitive-behavioral approaches to changing
body image, In T. F. Cash & T. Pruzinsky (Eds.), Body Image: A Handbook of
Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice, New York: Guilford Press.
Chaney, D. (1996) Lifestyle, London, Routledge.
Coser, L. (1387 [2008 A.D]) Zendegi va Andišeh Bozorgân-e Jâmešenâsi (Persian
Translation of Masters of Sociological Thought; Ideas in Historical), Translated by
Mohsen Solâsi, Tehrân: Elmi.
Dorân, B. (1377 [1998 A.D]) Negâh-e Gidenz be Moderniteh (Persian Translation of
Giddens perspective to Modernity), Transalted by Mohsen Solâsi, TehrâN: Našr-e
Markaz.

Fâzeli, M. (1382 [2003 A.D]) Masraf va Sabk-e Zendegi (Persian Translation of
Consumption and Lifestyle), Qom: Entešârât-e Sobh-e Sâq.
Garner, D., & Garfinkel, P. (1980) “Socio-Cultural Factors in the Development of
Anorexia Nervosa”, Psychological Medicine, Vol. 10 (-): 647-656.
Garner, D., & Kearney-Cooke, A. (1996) “Body Image” Psychology Today, Vol. 29(-):
55-56.
Garner, D., Garfinkel, P., Schwartz, D., & Thompson, M. (1980) “Cultural expectations
of thinness in women”, Psychological Report, Vol.47 (-):483-491.
Giddens, A. (1385 [2006 A.D]) Tajadod va Tašxos, Jâmeeh va Hoviat-e Šaxsi dar Asr-e
Jadid (Persian Translation of Modernity and Self - Identity: Self and Society in the
Late Modern Age ), Translated by Nâser Movafaqiân, Tehrân: Našr-e Ney.
Glazer, R. N. (1992) “Women’s Body Image and Law”, Duke Law Journal, Vol. 43(1):
113-147.
Grogan, S. (1999) Body Image: Understanding Body dissatisfaction in Men, Women
and Children, London: Routledge.
Hargreaves, D., tiggemann, M. (2006) “Body Image is for Girls: A qualitative Study of
Boys’ Body Image”, Journal of Health Psychology, Vol. 11( 4):567-576.
Haworth-Hoeppner, Susan (2000) “The Critical Shapes of Body Image: The Role of
Culture and Family in the Production of Eating Disorders”, Journal of Marriage and
the Family, Vol. 62(-):212-227.
Hesse-Biber, S. N., Howling, S. A., Leavy, P., Lovejoy, M. (2004) “Racial Identity
and the Development of Body Image Issues among African American Adolescent
Girls”, The Qualitative Report, Vol. 9 (1): 49-79.
Huang, J, Norman, G. J., Zabinski, M. F., Calfas, Karen, Kevin Patrick, (2007) “Body
Image and Self-Esteem among Adolescents undergoing an Intervention Targeting
Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors”, Journal of adolescent health, Vol. 3 (40):
245-251.
Jung, Jaehee, Seung-Hee Lee (2009) Ross-Cultural Comparisons of Appearance Self-
Schema, Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Dieting Behaviour Between Korean and U.
S. Women, Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, Vol. 34(-): 350-365.
Katzman, M. A., Lee, S. (1997) Beyond Body Image: The Integration of Feminist and
Transcultural Theories in the Understanding of Self Starvation, New York: John
Wiley & Sons.
Levinson, R., Powell, B. & Steelman, L. C. (1986) “Social Location, Significant others
and Body Image among Adolescents”, Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 49(4):
330-337.

Machin, D. & Leeuwen, T. V (2005) “Language Style and Lifestyle: The Case of a
Global Magazine”, Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 27 (4): 577-600.
Mohammadi, N. & Sajâdinežâd, A. (1386 [2007 A.D]) “Arzyâbi Šâxeshâye Ravânsanji
Porsešnâmey-e Negarâni darbârey-e Tasvir-e Badani va Âzmoon-e Model-e
Ertebâti Šâxes-e Toodey-e Badani, Nârezâyati az Tasvi-r Badani va Ezat-e Nafs
dar Doxtarân-e Javân” (Persian Translation of Anxiety on Body Image), Motâleât
Ravânšenâxti, Vol.3 (1): 83-99.
Molavi, J.M.M. (1382 [2003 A.D]) Tarjomeh va Tafsir-e Masnavi Manavi Šarh-e Anvar
(Persian Translation of Translation and Analysis of Masnavi), Translated by Heydar
Abbâsi, Tehrân: Homâ.
Monâdi, M. (1388 [2009 A.D]) “Naqš-e Dâneš va Šenâxt dar Zendegi Roozmarreh,
Moqâyeseh Moredi Xânevâdehây-e Tahsilkardeh va Kamsavâd-e Tehrâni (Persian
Translation Knowledge Role in Everyday Life: Comparative Study among Educated
and Non-educated Families), Faslnâmeh Anjoman-e Âmoozeš-e Âli Irân, Vol. 2 (1):
67-110.
Moxtâri, M. (1388 [2009 A.D]) Nazariyeh Zaminei Tasvir-e Badani Zanân: Čerâ
Zanân Eqdâm be Amal-e Jarâhi Mikonand? Motâlee Moredi Zanân-e Šhr-e Širâz
(Persian Translation of Women`s Body Image: Why Women do Plastic Surgery?
Case Study Women of Shiraz), PhD Dissertation, Faculty of Social Science,
University of Shiraz.
Nemeroff, C. J., Stein, R. I., Diehl, N. S., & Smilack, K. M. (1994) “From the Cleavers
to the Clintons: Role Choices and Body Orientation as Reflected in Magazine
Article content, International Journal of Eating Disorders, Vol. 16(-): 167-176.
Nettelton, S. (1998) Body in Everyday Life, London and New York: Routledge.
Nezlek. J. B (1999) Body Image and day-to-day Social Interaction, J Pers, 67, 793-
817.
Petrie, T. A., Austin, L. J., Crowley, B. J., Helmcamp, A., Johnson, C. E., Lester,
R., Rogers, R. Turner, J., & Walbrick, K. (1996) “Socio cultural expectations of
attractiveness for males”, Sex Roles, Vol. 35(-):581-602.
Qalebandi, M. & Afxam Ebrâhimi, A. (1383 [2004 A.D]) “Olgoohây-e Šaxsiati-e
Motaqâziân-e Zibâei” (Persian Translation of The Characteristic Patterns of Beauty
Applicants), Faslnâmeh Ravânpezaški va Ravânšenâsi Bâlini, Vol.9 (36): 4-9.
Qâsemi, A., Momeni, M. & Xânekeh, H. (1388 [2009 A.D]) “Moqâyeseh Tasvir-e
Badani Maloolin va Varzeškâr bâ Maloolin-e Qyr-e Varzeškâr-e Mard” (Persian
Translation of Body Image: Male Handicap Athletes and Non Handicap Athletes),
Faslnâmeh Tavânbaxši, Vol. 1 (4): 26-31.

Rabbâni, R. & Širi,H. (1388 [ 2009A.D]) “Oqât-e Farâqat va Hoviat-e Ejtemâei:
Barresi-e Jâmešenâxti Olgoohây-e Gozarân-e Oqât-e Farâqat Javânân dar Tehrân”
(Persian Translation of Leisure Time and Social Identity: Sociological Study of
Leisure Time among Tehrani Youth), Faslnâmeh Tahqiqât-e Farhangi, Vol.1 (1):
117-141.
Rafatjâh, M. (1386 [2007 A.D]) “Hoviat-e Ensâni Zan dar Čâleš-e Ârâyeš va Mod”
(Persian Translation of Humanistic Identity of Woman in the Challenge of Make Up
and Fashion), Faslnâmeh Motâleât Râhbordi-e Zanân, Vol.9 (38): 171-135.
Sarâee, H., Poorjebeli, R. (1386 [ 2007 A.D] “Barresi-e Moqâyesei Sabk-e Zendegi
do Qom-e Kord va Âzari” (Persian Translation of Comparative Studies of Two
Ethnic Lifestyle: Kurd and Azari-e Šahr-e Oroomieh), Faslnâmeh Elmi Pažooheši-e
Oloom-e Ejtemâee, Vol.3(13): 86-114.
Sotoudeh, G., Khorshid, S., Karbakhsh, Khaje Nasiri, F., and Khalkhali, H. R. (2008)
“What Women Think About Their Husbands’ Opinions Might Influence Women’s
Body image, An Explorative Study”, Indian Journal of Medical Science, Vol.
65(3):98-104.
Swami, V., Hadji-Michael, M., Furnham, A. (2008) “Personality and Individual
Correlates of Positive Body Image, Body Image in Press, pp. 1-4.
Tiggemann, Marike and Eha Ruutel (2001), “A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Body
Dissatisfaction in Estonian and Australian Young Adult, Its Relationship with Media
Exposure”, Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, Vol. 23 (6):-.
Wiseman, C., Gray, J., Mosimann, J., & Anthony Ahrens, A. (1992) “Cultural
Expectations of Thinness in Women: An update, “International Journal of Eating
Disorders, 11, pp. 85-89.
Xâjenoori, B. & Moqaddas, A. (1385 [2006 A.D]) “Jahânišodan va Mošârekat-e Siâsi
Zanân dar Irân Motâlee Moredi Širâz, Tehrân & Estahbân”, Majaleh Oloom-e
Ejtemâei Dâneškadeh Adabiât va Oloom-e Ensâni Dânešgâh Ferdowsi-e Mašhad
(Persian Translation of Globalization and Women`s Political Participation in Iran;
Case Study of Shiraz, Tehran and Estahban), Vol.4 (2): 45-71.
______ (1388 [2009 A.D]) “Jahânišodan va Sarmây-e Ejtemâi-e Zanân” (Persian
Translation of Globalziation and Women`s Social Capital), Majaleh Oloom-e
Ejtemâei Dâneškadeh Adabiât va Oloom-e Ensâni Dânešgâh Ferdowsi-e Mašhad,
Vol.5 (2): 131-154.
_______(1388 [2009 A.D]) “Râbetey-e Beyn-e Satavvor az Badan va Jahânišodan:
Motâlee Moredi-e Zanân Šahr-e Širâz, Tehrân & Estahbân” ( Persian Translation
of Body Image and Globalization: Case Study of Shiraz, Tehran and Estahbani
Women), Jâmešenâsi Kârbordi, Vol.20(1): 1-24.

Xâjenoori, B. (1385 [2006 A.D]) Barresi-e Râbetey-e Jahânišodan va Mošârekat-e
Ejtemâei-e Zanân: Motâlee Moredi-e Širâz, Tehrân & Estahbân (Persian Translation
Globalization and Women Social Participation: Case Study of Shiraz, Tehran &
Estahban), PhD Dissertation, Faculty of Social Science, University of Shiraz.
_____ (1386 [2007 A.D]) “Tasir-e Farâyand-e Jahânišodan bar Taqsim-e Kâr-e Xânegi;
Motâlee Moredi Zanân Moteahel Šahr-e Širâz, Tehrân & Estahbân”, Majaleh
Oloom-e Ejtemâei Dâneškadeh Adabiât va Oloom-e Ensâni Dânešgâh Ferdowsi-e
Mašhad, Vol.3 (2): 1-23.
Yunesi, J. & Salâjeqeh, A. (1380 [ 2001 A.D]) “ Tasvir-e Zehni az Badan dar Zanân-e
Bârvar va Qeyr-e Bârvar” (Persian Translation of Body Image in Fertile and Infertile
Women),
Zokâei, M., Farzâneh, H. (1387 [2008 A.D]) “ Zanân va Farhang-e Badan” ( Persian
Translation of Women and Body Culture), Motâleât Farhangi va Ertebâtât, Vol.4
(11): 43-59.