نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار جامعه‌شناسی، پژوهشکده امام خمینی و انقلاب اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

علوم اجتماعی در طول بیش از دو قرن در مطالعهٔ علمی دین تحت سیطرهٔ «مفروضهٔ کنشگر نامعقول» قرار گرفته بود. دینداری و رفتارهای مذهبی بر اساس تفکر ابتدایی، انگیزش‌های روان‌نژندی و شرطی‌سازی اجتماعی تبیین می‌شد و افول دین و دینداری نیز به‌عنوان پیامدِ اجتناب‌ناپذیر روشنگری‌های علم و پیشرفت‌های تکنولوژیک دیده می‌شد. از اواخر قرن بیستم و به‌ویژه اوایل قرن بیست‌ویکم مجموعه‌ای فزاینده از داده‌های تجربی حاصل از تحقیقات علوم اجتماعی نشان داده‌اند که این رویکرد سنتی به مطالعهٔ علمی دین معیوب می‌باشد. بسیاری از این داده‌ها، به‌طور جدی، با مدعاهای قدیمی ولی محبوبِ دانش‌پژوهان علوم اجتماعی مبنی بر «ناسازگاری علم با دین»، «افول و زوال تدریجی دین» و «ریشه‌های آسیب‌شناختی التزام مذهبی» در چالش بوده‌اند. شواهد پژوهشی ارائه‌شده در مقالهٔ حاضر نیز نشان داد که اکثر ادبیات حجیم مربوط به ارتباط تحصیلات دانشگاهی با کاهش دینداری دانشجویان، که تحت سیطرهٔ پارادایم سکولاریزاسیون و فرضیهٔ ناسازگاری علم با دین تولید شده بود، از حمایت تجربی لازم برخوردار نیست. همچنین، تحلیل داده‌های مربوط به دینداری مسلمانان ایرانی نشان داد که تفاوت دینداری جمعیت نمونهٔ تحقیق بیشتر تحت‌تأثیر زمینهٔ مذهبی خانوادگی آنان بوده است نه تحصیل در دانشگاه؛ به عبارت دیگر، آن چیزی که غالباً به‌عنوان تأثیرات دانشگاه بر کاهشِ التزام مذهبی دانشجویان در مقایسه با همتایان‌شان، که فاقد تحصیلات دانشگاهی بوده‌اند، مطرح می‌شود اغلب به‌خاطر تفاوت در زمینه‌های خانوادگی و جامعه‌پذیری اولیهٔ آنان قبل از ورود به دانشگاه بوده؛ نه‌اینکه محصول تجربیات آنان بعد از ورود به دانشگاه‌ها باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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