نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روان‌شناسی تربیتی، دانشکده علوم‌تربیتی و روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار روان‌شناسی تربیتی، دانشکده علوم‌تربیتی و روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار روان‌شناسی تربیتی، دانشکده علوم‌تربیتی و روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقاله حاضر با هدف بررسی و شناسایی مؤلفه‌ها و ابعاد خرد با استفاده از رویکرد ادراک افراد از خرد (نظریه ضمنی خرد) در جامعه ایران انجام گرفت. جامعه پژوهش حاضر شامل تمامی افراد بالای 20 سال ایران بودند. 328 شرکت‌کننده (134 زن و 194مرد) از قومیت‌های ایران (ترک، کرد، لر، عرب، بلوچ، ترکمن و فارس) به روش هدفمند و در دسترس برای پاسخ‌گویی به پرسش‌نامه باز پاسخ محقق‌ساخته انتخاب شدند. پژوهش به روش تحلیل محتوا و با استفاده از رویکرد کیفی انجام گرفت. یافته‌ها در ارتباط با نمونه‌های خرد نشان داد که میانگین‌ سنی آنها 9/62 و 2/94 درصد از آنان از گروه‌ مردان بودند. 9/27 درصد از نمونه‌های خرد را شخصیت‌های دینی، 1/20 درصد نزدیکان فرد، 15/19 درصد افراد متخصص، 6/12 درصد شخصیت‌های اجتماعی‌ـ‌سیاسی و مابقی را سایر گروه‌ها تشکیل دادند. همچنین مؤلفه‌ها و ابعاد خرد در 5 طبقهٔ اصلی فضیلت‌های عقلانی، اخلاقی، مدنی، عملکردی و معنوی به دست آمد. نتایج بررسی مؤلفه‌ها، مقولات و طبقات نشان داد که 05/37 درصد از کل ویژگی‌ها و رفتارهای به‌دست آمده ذیل طبقه فضیلت‌های عقلانی قرار گرفتند و فضیلت‌های عملکردی، اخلاقی، مدنی و معنوی به‌ترتیب 5/26، 6/18، 01/8 و 4/4 درصد از کل مؤلفه‌ها و ویژ‌گی‌ها را به خود اختصاص دادند. به‌طور‌کلی، نتایج نشان داد ادراک خرد ایرانیان تلفیقی است از مؤلفه‌های مورد تأکید فرهنگ غرب (شناختی، عقلانی) و شرق (اجتماعی‌ـ‌عاطفی و معنویت).

کلیدواژه‌ها

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