رسانه و فرهنگ‌سازی

نویسنده

استادیار علوم سیاسی دانشکده روابط بین‌الملل وزارت امور خارجه

چکیده

این مقاله به منظور بررسی تأثیرات رسانه بر فرهنگ‌سازی، ابتدا به تبیین لایه‌های شش‌گانه فرهنگ شامل: باورها، ارزش‌ها و هنجارها (به عنوان هسته فرهنگ) و نماد‌ها و اسطوره‌ها، آیین‌ها و آداب و رسوم، و فناوری‌ها، مهارت‌ها و نوآوری‌ها (به عنوان پوسته فرهنگ) می‌پردازد. سپس با واکاویِ مفهومی فرهنگ‌سازی مشتمل بر فرهنگ‌پذیری (به معنای تأثیرگذاری بر هسته و پوسته فرهنگ) و فرهنگ‌گرایی (به معنای تأثیرگذاری بر پوسته فرهنگ) و با بهره‌گیری از نظریه‌های ارتباطی، به تجزیه و تحلیل تأثیرات فرهنگیِ رسانه‌ها در عرصه‌های اندیشه‌پردازی، ارزش‌گذاری، هنجار‌سازی، نماد‌سازی، جامعه‌پذیری، الگوسازی و نوآوری رفتاری مبادرت می‌ورزد و این فرضیه را مورد آزمون قرار می‌دهد که رسانه‌ها در عرصه هسته فرهنگ از توان تعلیمی و تثبیتی در زمینه فرهنگ‌پذیری برخوردارند و در مورد پوسته فرهنگ دارای توان تغییر رفتارها و الگوهای اجتماعی در جهت فرهنگ‌گرایی هستند. نگارنده در پایان، استلزامات چشم‌انداز مثبت فعالیت‌های رسانه‌ای در عرصه فرهنگ‌سازی را خاطرنشان می‌سازد.

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