ویژگی‌های فرهنگ سازمانی با رویکرد به‌سازی نیروی انسانی؛

نویسنده

دانشیار و عضو هیأت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز

چکیده

یکی از مهم‌ترین عوامل درونی سازمان، فرهنگ و فضای آن سازمـان اسـت که از اهمیت ویژه‌ای برخوردار است. اگر سازمان در دو عامـل فرهنگ و فضا ضعف داشته باشد، به‌طور یقین نمی‌تواند خود را به حد مطلوب برسانـد. تاریـخ نشان می‌دهد موفقیت عملکرد هر سازمانی به‌طور معناداری تحت تأثیر فرهنگ سازمانی آن قرار می‌گیـرد. لذا بررسی اینکه آیا در سازمان‌ها از ویژگی‌های سیزده‌گانه فرهنگ سازمانی شامل: هویت، تعهد، ثبات، رفتار، وظایف، کنترل، هماهنگی، ابتکار فردی، مسئولیت‌پذیری، هدایت و سرپرستی، انسجام، حمایت مدیریتی و ارتباطات، درک مثبتی وجود دارد یا خیر؟، هدف اصلی این پژوهش است تا با استفاده از فرضیه‌ای تحت عنوان «وجود ارتباط آماریِ معنی‌دار بین ویژگی‌های فرهنگ سازمانی در سازمان‌ها» مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. با استفاده از پرسشنامه‌های ویژگی‌های فرهنگ سازمانی در نمونه‌های قابل دسترس جامعه آماری این بررسی شامل مدیران، کارشناسان و کارگران شرکت‌های کوچک تولید‌کننده قطعات صنعتی شهر تبریز، بیشترین امتیاز در بُعد ابتکار فردی و کمترین امتیاز در بُعد حمایت مدیریتی حاصل شد که نتایج ضریب همبستگی علاوه بر وجود همبستگی مثبت، ارتباط معنی‌داری را بین ویژگی‌های اصلی فرهنگ سازمانیِ مورد ارزیابی نشان داد. همچنین تحلیل واریانس ویژگی‌های فرهنگ سازمانی در بخش‌های مختلف سازمانی مربوط به درک کارکنان بخش‌های مختلف سازمانی نشان داد اختلاف معنی‌داری بین درک مدیران و کارشناسان از ویژگی‌های مذکور وجود ندارد اما در این رابطه، اختلاف معنی‌داری بین درک کارکنان نسبت به این ویژگی‌ها وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Abbâs Zâdegân, M. (1384 [2005 A.D]) Mabâhes-e Kârbordi dar Modiriyat-e Manâb-e Ensâni (Persian Translation of Applied Topics in Human Resource Management), Power Point training.
_____ (1374 [1995 A.D]) Vejdân-e Kâr: Rahyâft-e Elmi va Kârbordi (Persian Translation of Work Conscience, Scientific and Practical Approach), Urmiye-h Enteŝârât-e Arŝiâ.
Ahmadpoor Dâriâni, M. & Moqimi, M. (1386 [2007 A.D]) Mabâni-ye Kârâfarini (Persian Translation of Principles of Entrepreneurship), Tehran: Markaz-e Kârâfarini-ye Dâneŝgâh-e Tehran.
Ahmed, P. (1998) “Culture and Climate for Innovation”, European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 1(1):540-545 .
Al-Shammari, M. (1992) “Organizational Climate, Leadership and Organizational”, Development Journal, Vol. 13(6): 30-392.
Alvâni, M. (1378 [1999 A.D]) Modiriyat-e Omumi (Persian Translation of Public Management), Tehran: Naŝr-e Ney.
Amann, W. (2006) The Impact of Internationalization on Organizational Culture, New York: Addison Wesle.
Armstrong, M. (1380 [2001 A.D]) Râhbordhâ-ye Modiriyat-e Manâb-e Ensâni (Persian Translation of Human Resource Management Strategies), Translated by Xodâyâr Ebili, Tehran: Enteŝârât-e Farâ.
Atâfar, A. (1375 [1996 A.D]) Farhang-e Sâzmâni va Nahve-h Ijâd-e Tahavol dar ân (Persian Translation of Organizational Culture and its Transformation), Isfahân: Seminâr-e Farhang-e Kâr.
Audretsch, D. B. & Bonet, W. & Keilbach, M. (2008) “Entrepreneurship Capital”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. (23): 659-994.
Azar, A & Momeni, M. (1385 [2006 A.D]) Amâr va Kârbord-e ân dar Modiriyat (Persian Translation of Statistics and its Application in the Management), Tehran: Samt.
Babbie, E. & Mouton, J. (2001) The Practice of Social Research, Cape Town: Oxford University Press.
Baker, K. (2005) “Organizational Culture”, Retrieved February 22, available at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles
Balthazard, P. & Cooke, R. (2004) “Organizational Culture and Knowledge Management Success”, 37th Int, Hawaii: Conference on System Sciences.
Barker, G., King, H., Mac Donald, J. & Horbor, J. (2003) “Organizational Assessment Surveys for Improvement”, Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 111(4): 419-425.
Benko, L. (2001) “Getting the Royal Treatment”, Modern Health Care, Vol. 39(1): 23-32.
Boan, D. & Funderburk, F. (2005) “Health Quality Improvement”, available athttp://www.delmarvafoundation.org/newsAndPublications/reports/documents/OrganizationalCulture.pdf

Bodde, D. L. & Greene, M. (1999) “The Art of the Hypothetical Entrepreneurship as an Empirical Guide to Policy”, Journal of Technology in Society, Vol. (21): 247-262.
Bredenkamp, I. (2002) “Organizational Culture and Organizational Change”, available at http://www.tsa.ac./corp/research/papers.
Buono, A. & Bowditch, J. (1989) The Human Side of Mergers and Acquisitions, San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Cameron, K. & Quin, R. (2006) Change Organizational Culture, New York: Addison Wesley.
Carr, P. (2006) “Culture Change”, available at www.culture change.com
Carter. M. (2005) “Organizational Culture”, available at http://www.culture change.com. /research/papers.
Cho, H. (2005) “The Validity and Reliability of the Organizational Culture Questionnaire”, available at http:// www.denisonculture.com./documents/OrganizationalCulture.pdf.
Christensen, E. & Gordon, G. (2004) “An Exploration of Industry Culture”, available at http://www.findarticles.com/p/OrganizationalCulture/articles
Comings, T. & Evereley, K. (1374 [1995 A.D]) Tose-h Sâzmân va Tahavol (Persian Translation of Organization Development and Evolution), Translated by Abbâs Mohammad Zâde-h, Tehran: Enteŝârât-e Dâneŝgâh-e Âzâd-e Islâmi.
Davidson, G. (2004) The Relationship between Organizational Culture and Financial Performance, New York: John Wiley & Sons: 219-226.
Denison, D. & Mishra, A. (2004) “Toward a Theory of Organizational Culture and Effectiveness”, available at http://www.denisonculture.com./documents/OrganizationalCulture.pdf.
Denison, D. (1990) Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness, New York: John Wiley & Sons: 254-268.
Denison, D. (2006) “Organizational Culture and Effectiveness”, available at http://www.denisonculture.com./documents/OrganizationalCulture.pdf.
Denison, D. Jonovics, J. Young, J. & Cho, H. (2008) “Diagnosing Organizational Cultures”, available at http://www.denisonculture.com./documents/OrganizationalCulture.pdf.
Dodd, S. (2004) “Metaphors and Meaning a Grounded Cultural Model of US Entrepreneurship”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 6(17): 55-69.
Dougherty, D. & Hardy, C. (1996) “Sustained Product Innovation”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 5(1): 25-135.
Edgar H. Schein (2006) “Organizational Culture and Leadership”, available at http://www.tnellent/ Organizational Culture.PDF
Faxrâii, M. (1383 [2004 A.D]) Farhang-e Kârâfarini (Persian Translation of Entrepreneurship Culture), Tehran: Dâneŝgâh-e Sanati-ye Ŝarif.
Feizi, A. (1372 [1993 A.D]) Majmoe-h Maqâlât-e Seminâr-e Barrasi-ye Masâel-e Edâri-ye

Iran (Persian Translation of Essay Collection of , Tehran.
Feniri, D. (1384 [2005 A.D]) Modiriyat-e Eqtezâii Motenâseb bâ Farhang-e Sâzmâni (Persian Translation of Appropriate Organizational Culture Management), Translated by Nâsser Mirsepâsi, Tehran: Enteŝârât-e Mir.
Feqhi Farahmand, N. (1380 [2001 A.D]) Farâyand-e Modiriyat-e Ejrâii (Persian Translation of Process of Executive Management), Tabriz: Dâneŝgâh-e Âzâd-e Islâmi.
_____ (1380 [2001 A.D]) Modiriyat dar Iran (Persian Translation of Management in Iran), Tabriz: Ketâbforouŝi-ye Markaz-e Amozeŝ-e Modiriyat-e Dolati.
_____ (1380 [2001 A.D]) Modiriyat-e Esterâtejik-e Sâzmân (Persian Translation of Organization`s Strategic Management), Tabriz: Enteŝârât-e Forouzeŝ.
_____ (1381 [2002 A.D]) Modiriyat-e Poyâ-ye Sâzmân (Persian Translation of Organization`s Dynamic Management), Tabriz: Enteŝârât-e Forouzeŝ.
_____ (1383 [2004 A.D]) Modiriyat-e Technologi-ye Sâzmân (Persian Translation of Management Technology Management), Tabriz: Enteŝârât-e Forouzeŝ.
Fincham, R. & Rhodes, P. (2004) “Principles of Organizational Behaviour”, available at http://www.oup.co.uk/pdf/bt/fincham/chapter15
Fisher, C. & Alford, R. (2000) “Consulting on Culture”, Psychology: Research and Practice, Vol. 52(3): 25-35.
Fowler, D. (2005) “Corporate Culture for the Masses”, available at http://www.tsa.ac.za/corp/research/papers/ibreden
Foxcroft, C. & Roodt, G. (2002) Psychological Assessment in the South African Context, Cape Town: Oxford University Press.
Franck, C. (2005) Reliability of the Denison Organizational Culture Survey, Pretoria: University of South Africa.
Goudarzi, A. (1381 [2002 A.D]) Osul, Mabâni va Nazariye-h-hâ-ye Jav va Farhang-e Sâzmâni (Persian Translation of Principles and Theories of Organizational Culture), Isfahân: Jahâd-e Dâneŝgâhi-ye Isfahân.
Hâfezniâ, M. (1382 [2003 A.D]) Moqadamei bar Raveŝ-e Tahqiq dar Olum-e Ensâni (Persian Translation of Introduction to Research Method in the Humanities), Tehran: Samt.
Harvey, D. & Brown, D. (1996) An Experiential Approach to Organizational Development, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Hofstede, G. (1985) “The Interaction between National and Organizational Value Systems”, Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 22(4): 347-357.
Lee, S. M. & Peterson, S. J. (2000) “Culture, Entrepreneurial Orientation”, World Business, Vol. 35. (4): 161-416.
Light, P. C. (2006) “Reshaping Social Entrepreneurship”, Stanford Social Innovation Review, available at: http://www.review.org/articles/entry/social_entrepreneurship_the_case_for_definition/

Mahmoodi, M. (1384 [2005 A.D]) “Naqŝ-e Farhang-e Sâzmâni dar Piŝgiri az Boroz-e Fesâd-e Edâri” (Persian Translation of The Role of Organizational Culture in Prevention of Administrative Corruption), Majale-h Tadbir, Vol. (160)-.
Mami Zâde-h, G. (1373 [1994 A.D]) “Modiriyat-e Farhang-e Sâzmâni” (Persian Translation of Organizational Culture Management), Te Faslnâme-h Modiriyat-e Dolati, Vol. (25):.
Martin, R. L. & Osberg (2007) “Social Entrepreneurship: The Case for Definition”, available at: http://www.ssireview.org/articles/entry/social_entrepreneurship_the_case_for_definition/
Mc Garvy, E. & Wolfe, R. (2005) “Organizational Assessment Report”, available at http://www.findarticles/p/articles./documents/OrganizationalCulture.
Mobley, W. Wang, L. & Fang, K. (2005) “Organizational Culture”, available at http://www.denisonconsulting.com/newsletter/2.1
Mouton, J. (1996) Understanding Social Research, Pretoria: Van Schaik.
Mueller, S. L. & Thomas, A. S. (2000) “Culture and Entrepreneurial Potential”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.12 (5): 403-421.
Musselwhite, C. (2006) “A Performing Culture”, available at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles
Nier, S. (2006) “Defense Logistics Agency: Human Resources Strategy”, available at http://www.dlaarticles.com/articles./documents/Organizational Culture.
Palmer, S. (2005) “Center Solutions”, available at www.greater Organizations.com/Organizational Culture.
Plummer, L. A. & Haynie, J. M., & Godesiabois, J. (2007) “Origins Entrepreneurial Opportunity”, Journal of Small Business Economic, Vol.8 (28):275-289 .
Pretorius, W. (2005) “The Impact of Organizational Culture on Effectiveness”, available at http://www.upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd_3162004_131828
Robbins, A. (1374 [1995 A.D]) Modiriyat-e Raftâr-e Sâzmâni (Persian Translation of Organizational Behavior Management), Translated by Ali Pârsâiân & Mohammad Aårâbi, Tehran: Moasese-h Motâleât va Pažoheŝhâ-ye Bâzargâni.
Roholamini, M. (1368 [1989 A.D]) Zamine-h-hâ-ye Farhangŝenâsi (Persian Translation of The Contexts of Culture Study), Tehran: Enteŝârât-e Attâr.
Rondeau, K. & Wagner. T. (1999) “Health Care Quality Assurance Incorporating Leadership”, Health Services, Vol. 12(3): 251-296.
Schirmacher, S. & Athey, H. (2006) “Dimensions”, available at http://www.Dlaarticles.com org/articles/entr
Sekaran, U. (1380 [2001 A.D]) Raveŝhâ-ye Tahqiq dar Modiriyat (Persian Translation of Research Methods in Management), Translated by Mohammad Sâebi; Mahmood Sirâzi, Tehran: Markaz-e Amozeŝ-e Modiriyat-e Dolati.
Sekaran, U. (2000) Research Methods for Business: A Skills Building Approach, New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Shane, S. & Locke, E. A. & Collins, C. J. (2003) Entrepreneurial Motivation, New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Sharma, B. (2006) “Local Government Organization to Becoming a Learning Organization”, Business Process Management Journal, Vol. 11(4):35-78.
Shine, A. (1383[2004 A.D]) Farhang-e Sâzmâni (Persian Translation of Organizational Culture), Translated by Mohammad Ibrahim Mahjob, Tehran: Enteŝârât-e Farâ.
Sorensen, J. (2004) “The Strength of Corporate Culture”, available at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4035/is_1_47/ai_87918557/pg_9.
Stanley, D. (1376 [1997 A.D]) Modiriyat-e Farhang-e Sâzmân (Persian Translation of Organizational Culture Management), Translated by Nâsser Mirsepâsi; Paricehr. Motamed Gorji, Tehran: Enteŝârât-e Morvârid.
Tagiuri, R. & Litwin, G. (1986) Organizational Climate, Boston: Harvard University. Trice, H. & Beyer, J. (1993) Cultures of Work Organizations, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Tâheri, A. (1376 [1997 A.D]) Raveŝ-e Tahqiq va Maåxazŝenâsi (Persian Translation of Research Method and Source), Tehran: Enteŝârât-e Payâm-e Nor.
Tâheri, S. (1378 [1999 A.D]) Bahre-h-vari va Tajziye-h va Tahlil-e ân dar Sâzmânhâ (Persian Translation of Utilization and its Analysis in Organizations), Tehran: Naŝr-e Hastân.
Tousi, M. (1372 [1993 A.D]) Farhang-e Sâzmâni (Persian Translation of Organizational Culture), Tehran: Markaz-e Amozeŝ-e Modiriyat-e Dolati.
Trimpey, T. (2004) Information and Technology Managers as Influential Change Implementation Agents, University of Oregano: Portland.
Unwin, K. (2002) A Whitepaper on Organizational Culture, New York: Brighteye Performance Ltd.
Wesemann, E. (2006) “Legal Managers Can Manage Their Firm Dynamics for Better Service”, available at http://www.corporatecultures.com org/articles/entry/.
Xâki, Q. (1382 [2003 A.D]) Raveŝ-e Tahqiq dar Modiriyat (Persian Translation of Research Method in Management), Tehran: Dâneŝgâh-e Âzâd-e Islâmi.
Zâhedi, M. (1381 [2001 A.D]) “Taqiir-e Farhang-e Sâzmâni” (Persian Translation of Organizational Culture`s Transformation), Majale-h Tadbir, Vol. (127): 42-58.
Zâhedi, M. (1381 [2002 A.D]) “Râbete-h Farhang-e Sâzmân va Kârâi-ye Sâzmân” (Persian Translation of The Relationship of Organizational Culture and Organizational Performance), Faslnâme-h Sanat-e Bime-h, Vol. (65): 22-39.
Zboril-Benson, L. & Magee, R. (2005) “How Quality Improvement Projects Influence Organizational Culture”, Healthcare Quarterly, Vol- (8):639-651.
Zomorodiân, A. (1373 [1994 A.D]) Modiriyat-e Tahavol, Esterâtejihâ va Kârbord-e Olgohâ-ye Novin (Persian Translation of Transformation Management, Strategies and Application of New Models), Tehran: Enteŝârât-e Sâzmân-e Modiriyat-e Sanati.