1. Ahmed, S. (992) Postmodernism and Islam: Predicament and Promise, London:
2. Al Nawawy, M. (2005) “Law and the Middle East Media, Between Censorship and
Independence”, in Claire Badaracco (ed.), Quoting God: How Media Shape Ideas about
Religion and Culture, Waco: Baylor University Press.
3. Anderson, W.(2003) “The Internet and Islam’s New Interpreters”, in Dale Eickelman
(eds), New Media in the Muslim World: The Emerging Public Sphere, Second Edition,
, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
4. Badaracco, H. (ed.) (2005) Quoting God: How Media Shape Ideas about Religion
and Culture, Waco: Baylor University Press.
5. Eickelman, F., & W. Anderson & M. Tessler (eds) (2003) New Media in the Muslim
World: The Emerging Public Sphere, Second Edition, Bloomington: Indiana University
6. Fox, J. (2001) “Are Middle East Conflicts More Religious?”, in Middle East
Quarterly, Vol. 8 ( 4): 31-40.
7. Gaddy, W. (2005) “God Talks in Public Square”, in Badaracco Claire (ed.), Quoting
God: How Media Shape Ideas about Religion and Culture, Waco: Baylor University
8. Horsfield, G. (1997) “Changes in Religion in Periods of Media Convergence”, in
Stewart M. Hoover, Knut Lundby, Rethinking Media, Religion, and Culture, London:
9. Kellner, D. (1995) Media Culture: Cultural Studies, Identity and Politics Between
the Modern and the Post-Modern, London: Routledge.
10. Keyhan Newspaper, (2006) September 21.
11. Keyhan Newspaper, (2006) September 23.
12. Khomeini, R. (1362 [1983 A.D]) Resale-h Toziholmasâel (Persian Translation of
Religious Manual), Tehran: Entešârât-e Mehrâb.
13. Khomeini, R. (1376 [1997 A.D] Sahifeh-ye Nor (Persian Translation of The Book
of Lights), Tehran: Markaz-e Našr-e Asnâd-e Enqelâb-e Islami.
14. Kurth, J. (1999) “Religion and Globalization”, in The Templeton Lecture on Religion
and World Affairs, Vol.7 (7).
15. Lee B., Donna, Evelyn A Early, eds. (2002) Everyday Life in the Muslim Middle
East: Second Edition, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
16. Momen, M. (1987) An Introduction to Shi`i Islam: The History and Doctrines of
Twelver Shi`ism, New York: Yale University Press.
17. Puniyani, R. (2005) Religion, Power & Violence: Expression of Politics in
Contemporary Times, London: Sage Publications Inc.
18. Rahimi, B. (2003) "Cyberdissent: The Internet in Revolutionary Iran", in Middle
East Review of International Affairs Journal, Vol. 7 (3): 101-114.
19. Rust, M. (1997) In the Culture of the Popular Press, Is the Pen Mightier than
the Lord? Religion and the Secular News Media, Insight on the News, http://www.
insightmag.com ( March 2003)
20. Schleifer, A. (1998) “ Media Explosion in the Arab World: The Pan Arab Satellite
Broadcasters”, in Translational Broadcast Studies Journal, Vol. 1 (1).
21. Šahriyâri, H. (1385 [2006 A.D]) “Mosâhebe-h bâ Roznâme-h Kayhân” (Persian
Translation of An Interview with Kayhan Newspaper), in Keyhan Newspaper, Vo.
22. Shuaib, A. (2005) Religion and Media, Nigeria World, in http://nigeriaworld.com/
23. Takeyh, R. (2001) “Faith-Based Initiatives: Can Islam Bring Democracy to the
Middle East?”, in Foreign Policy, No (127): 68-70.
24. White, A. (1997) “Religion Media in the Construction of Culture”, in Rethinking
Media, Religion, and Culture, edited by in: Stewart M. Hoover, and Knut Lundby,
London: Sage Publications Inc.