روشنفکران ایرانی و مسئله هویت در آیینه بحران

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

2 دانشجوی دکتری علوم سیاسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

در جستجوی الگوی هویت در اندیشه روشنفکران ایرانی، ضرورت داشت به این پرسش پرداخته شود که چه عواملی نگاه روشنفکران ایرانی به هویت را تحت تأثیر خود قرار داده است؟ و آیا می‌توان توضیحی از تنوع الگوها به دست داد؟ با بهره‌گیری از جامعه‌شناسی معرفت «وبری» و جستار روشی توماس اسپریگنز، تلاش شده تا تحول و تنوع الگوها توضیح و نشان داده شود که چگونه نظریه‌های متعدد هویتیِ روشنفکران ایرانی، تحت تأثیر بحران زمانه روشنفکران بوده است. چهار الگوی هویتی پدیدآمده در خلال بحران‌های مختلف عبارتند از:
1. الگوی هویتی باستانی به‌دست‌آمده از بحران عقب‌ماندگی؛
2. الگوی هویتی اسلامی ناشی از بحران انحطاط و گسست معرفت از اندیشه قدسی؛
3. الگوی هویتی چندگانه منتج از بحران ایدئولوژی‌گرایی و انعطاف‌ناپذیر دانستن فرهنگ‌ها و تمدن‌ها؛
4. الگوی ایران‌شهریِ متولدشده از بحران فراموشی جدال قدما و متأخرین و غوطه‌ور شدن در نزاع سنت و مدرنیته.

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