نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد آموزش زبان انگلیسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی دکتر علی شریعتی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، خراسان رضوی، ایران

2 استادیار زبان‌شناسی همگانی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه دامغان، سمنان، ایران

3 استادیار زبان‌شناسی همگانی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بین‍المللی امام رضا (ع)، خراسان رضوی، ایران

چکیده

هیجانات شرم و گناه که در زمرۀ هیجانات همگانی و خودآگاه بشر قرار می‌گیرند، در زندگی روزمرۀ افراد بسیار فراگیر بوده و ضمن برخورداری از نقش اساسی در فرایند اجتماعی‌شدگی انسان، به‌عنوان مکانیسم‌های کنترل اجتماعی، ایفای نقش می‌‍نمایند. این دو نوع هیجان، در پاسخ به ارزیابی منفی فرد از خود، بر پایۀ هنجارهای اجتماعی ایجاد می‌‍شوند. از آنجایی‌که دو هیجان «شرم» و «گناه» دارای ماهیت فرهنگ‌وابسته است، منطقی است اگر ادعا کنیم که بررسی نمودها و مصادیق زبانی مرتبط با این دو نوع هیجان در یک زبان مشخص می‌تواند در آشکارسازی فرهنگ حاکم بر جامعۀ موردنظر یاری‌‍رسان باشد. بنابراین، نظر به ماهیت فرهنگ‌وابستۀ هیجانات و رابطۀ تنگاتنگ میان زبان و فرهنگ، پژوهش کیفی حاضر بر آن است تا از رهگذر بررسی نمودهای زبانی مرتبط با این دو نوع هیجان در زبان فارسی، به فرهنگ‌کاوی این زبان همت گمارد. به‌منظور نیل به هدف موردنظر، پس از جمع‍‌آوری تعداد 756 نمونه از موارد مختلف کاربرد عبارات زبانی وابسته به مفاهیم «شرم» (نظیر شرمساری، روسیاهی، خجلت، ننگ، بی‍آبرویی، خجالت، خجول، حیا، آبرو، کم‍رو و ...) و «گناه» (همچون تقصیر، مقصر، گناه‍‌کار و ...) در موقعیت‌های مختلف طبیعی، نمونه‌های مذکور در بستر الگوی هایمز (1967) مورد تدقیق و واکاوی قرار خواهند گرفت. یافته‌های مقالهٔ حاضر ضمن صحه‌گذاردن بر حاکمیت قوی‌تر و قدرتمندتر فرهنگ شرم‌محور نسبت به فرهنگ گناه‌محور در فرهنگ ایران، برای ویژگی جمع‌گرایی ایرانیان نیز مهر تأییدی به شمار می‌روند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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